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Cells AP Biology. Monday, Sept. 23rd Learning Target: Students will recall their knowledge of cells and understand why cells are small. Go Over Test.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells AP Biology. Monday, Sept. 23rd Learning Target: Students will recall their knowledge of cells and understand why cells are small. Go Over Test."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells AP Biology

2 Monday, Sept. 23rd Learning Target: Students will recall their knowledge of cells and understand why cells are small. Go Over Test. Brain Storm – Everything you remember about cells. Prep for lab on Wednesday – Part 1 Diffusion and Osmosis

3 Tuesday, Sept. 24th Learning Target: Students will understand the relationship between cell volume, surface area, rates of diffusion and cell efficiency Why are cells so small? Differences between the categories of cells. Compare and Contrast Different Types of Cells. Prep for Cell Surface to Volume Lab. Lab – Part 1 Write up in Notebook

4 Cell Size

5 In graph one as surface area… volume …rate. In graph 2 as the length of the side … the surface to volume ratio … Based on the data table what conclusions can you make about surface area and volume.


7 .

8 Cells

9 All Cells 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Eukaryotic Cells 1. 2. 3. 4. Animal Cells 1. 2. 3. Plant Cells 1. 2. 3. Prokaryotic Cells 1. 2. 3. Terms: CytosolNucleoidCell Wall Plasma Membrane Endoplasmic ReticulumCentral Vacoule ChromosomesChloroplastsMitochondria RibosomesGolgi ApparatusCentrosome NucleusNucleolusCytoskeleton Cytoplasm

10 Wednesday, Sept. 25th Learning Target: Students will understand the relationship between cell volume, surface area, rates of diffusion and cell efficiency Complete: Surface Area to Volume Lab Lab – Part 1 Write up in Notebook Due: Friday, Sept. 27th

11 Students will investigate the relationship of among surface area, volume, and the rate of diffusion by designing an experiment with the use of agar gells. Table of Contents: Cell Size and Diffusion Rates Title Introduction: Brief statement of purpose, background knowledge of the concepts, and hypothesis. (less the 100 words) Materials and Procedures: Brief explanation of what you will do and what you will use. Results/ Data Collection and Analysis: Data Tables, Graph with title, X and Y Labeled. Conclusions and Discussion: Results summarized, Errors identified, compare to hypothesis, conclusions stated, suggestions for improvement Questions: What are questions for further investigation? What new questions arise?

12 Questions to Address Which surface area-to-volume ratio gave the fastest diffusion rate? Which surface area-to-volume ratio had the greatest diffusion depth? How might a cell’s shape influence the rate of diffusion? What factors affect the rate of diffusion and how can these be tested?

13 Sample Data Cell Dimensions Surface AreaVolumeSurface Area to Volume Ratio Rate of diffusion (Show Calculations) Percent of Discoloration after 10 min.

14 Thursday Sept. 26th Learning Target: Students will understand the relationship of cell size and diffusion rates. Students will be able explain the endosymbiotic theory and the evidence for it. Go over Lab Endosymbiosis

15 Thought Questions… Why are prokaryotic cells so much smaller than eukaryotic cells? Which type of cell was first on the planet? Why? What was the order of cellular diversity? Which type of cell has been more successful in terms of evolution, survival and populating the planet? How did we evolve from prokaryotic life into eukaryotic life?

16 Define and draw your interpretation of the evolution from prokaryotic life to eukaryotic life. Define the evidence we have for this process? What three main categories of life does it create? Pgs. Biology in Focus 484 - Red Book 529, 541

17 Endosymbiosis

18 What we know: Prokaryotic Life originates between 3.5 to 3.9 billion years ago Chemiosmotic Mechanism of ATP Synthesis Use Molecular Hydrogen, Methane Hydrogen Sulfide for energy VERY DIFFERENT BUT THE SAME

19 What we know: Prokaryotes evolve from chemiosmotic mechanisms to photosynthesis Creates a Oxygen rich atmosphere. BAD and GOOD

20 Eukaryotic Life 2.7 BYA Cytoskeleton – Big Deal Evolutionary Advantages to folding of membranes?

21 Figure 4.16 Mitochondrion Nonphotosynthetic eukaryote Photosynthetic eukaryote At least one cell Chloroplast Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote Nucleus Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Ancestor of eukaryotic cells (host cell) Engulfing of oxygen- using nonphotosynthetic prokaryote, which becomes a mitochondrion

22 Endosymbiosis Evidence: Mitochondria and Plastids (chloroplasts) Enzymes and Transports systems same as modern prokaryotes Replicates by binary fission same as prokaryotes Contain their own DNA (Plasmids same as prokaryotes) Contain their own ribosomes to make their own proteins

23 Three Distinct Lineages… Domain Eukarya (Eukaryotic) Domain Bacteria (Prokaryotic) - Normal Domain Archea (Prokaryotic) – EXTREMOPHILES Thermophiles – TEMP. Halophiles – SALT Methanogens – USE Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen gas to make energy – creates methane gas – sewage treatment, guts

24 Friday, Sept. 27 th Learning Target; Students will be able to identify and explain the functions of the various structures that make up the endomembrane system. Reading Check Turn in Lab Notebooks Discussion: Endomembrane System

25 Write a Narration for the video. Must include the following structures with their functions. Typed Due: Tuesday Cytoskeleton, Cell membrane, plasma membrane, microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, motor proteins, mitochondria, nucleus, nuclear pores, nuclear envelopes, Endomembrane system, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Cis face, Trans face, Vesicle, exocytosis, Smooth ER, Rough ER, extracellular matrix, transport vesicles, motor protein, glycoproteins, mitochondria, centrosomes.

26 Figure 4.15-1 Rough ER Nucleus Smooth ER Plasma membrane

27 Figure 4.15-2 Plasma membrane Rough ER cis Golgi Nucleus Smooth ER trans Golgi

28 Figure 4.15-3 Plasma membrane Rough ER cis Golgi Nucleus Smooth ER trans Golgi


30 Figure 4.13 Lysosome Lysosomes: Autophagy Peroxisome Mitochondrion Vesicle Digestion Mitochondrion fragment Peroxisome fragment Vesicle containing two damaged organelles 1  m

31 Compare and contrast the roles of smooth ER with rough ER. What type of cells would expect to find the two different types. A protein that functions in the ER but requires modification in the Golgi apparatus before it caqn achieve function. Describe the protein’s path through the cell, starting with the mRNA molecule that specifies the protein. Compare and contrast mitochondria and chloroplasts with regard to structure and function.


33 Tuesday, Oct. 1st Objective: Students will understand the basic structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix, cellular junctions and the cell membrane. task card. Discussion Cell Membrane

34 Table 6.1 The Structure and Function of the Cytoskeleton Write a Haiku poem that describe the cytoskeleton. Remember Haiku’s are 5, 7, 5 syllable poems.

35 Figure 6.28 Plant cell walls Central vacuole of cell Plasma membrane Secondary cell wall Primary cell wall Middle Lamella (Pectin) 1 µm Central vacuole of cell Plasmodesmata

36 Figure 6.29 Extracellular matrix (ECM) of an animal cell proteoglycan Collagen fibers. Fibronectin Plasma membrane EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Micro- filaments CYTOPLASM Integrins Polysaccharide molecule Carbo- hydrates Proteoglycan molecule Core protein Integrin

37 Figure 6.31 Exploring Intercellular Junctions in Animal Tissues Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells Tight junction 0.5 µm 1 µm Space between cells Plasma membranes of adjacent cells Extracellular matrix Gap junction Tight junctions 0.1 µm Intermediate filaments Desmosome Gap junctions At tight junctions, the membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, bound together by specific proteins (purple). Forming continu- ous seals around the cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells. Desmosomes (also called anchoring junctions) function like rivets, fastening cells together into strong sheets. Intermediate filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm. Gap junctions (also called communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell. Gap junctions consist of special membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass. Gap junctions are necessary for commu- nication between cells in many types of tissues, including heart muscle and animal embryos. TIGHT JUNCTIONS DESMOSOMES GAP JUNCTIONS

38 Compare different aspects of cell structure What structures best reveal evolutionary unity? Provide examples f diversity related to specialized modifications.

39 Recreate the diagram on your whiteboard label as much as you possibly can with structure and function. Label the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.

40 The term fluid mosaic model is often used to describe the cell membrane what is meant by this term and list and what factors contribute to its fluidity? Be specific to the role of cholesterol Describe three ways in which molecules can move across a cell membrane.

41 Unsaturated Phospholipids Increase fluidity Cholesterol Temperature buffer Integral Proteins?

42 What are the functions of membrane proteins?


44 Wednesday, Oct. 2nd Objective: Students will understand the fundamental processes that drive movement across the cell membrane. Discussion Lab Prep.

45 Active vs. Passive Transport (Concentration Gradient)

46 Passive Transport – No energy, High To Low Conc. Diffusion What types of molecules? Why? Things that affect the rate of diffusion

47 Why differentiate between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? What are the characteristics of the proteins? Why are they necessary?

48 Osmosis: Diffusion of Water (Aquaporins)


50 Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Isotonic

51 Osmosis What about plants and prokaryotic cells in fresh water environments?

52 Cell Wall = Pressure

53 Water Potential = waters ability to move Always from high to low water potential. Pressure is positive (Increases waters ability to move) Solute Potential Always negative More solute water less likely to move

54 Hypotonic (Cell Wall) = Water moves in until pressure builds up to equalize water potential = cell doesn’t lyse.

55 Thursday, Oct. 3rd Learning Target: Students will understand how water moves across cell membranes. Lab: Diffussion and Osmosis Potato Challenge – Water Potential – Potatoes cannot be left over a weekend Formal Lab: Due Tues. Oct. 8th

56 Friday, Oct. 4th Learning Target: Students will understand how water moves across cell membranes. Complete lab.

57 Monday Oct. 7th Learning Target: Students will understand how water moves across cell membranes. Finish Lab Write Up.

58 Tuesday, Oct. 8 th Objective: Students will be able to compare and contrast active and passive transport. Lab Due Task Cards Discussion

59 Proton Pump Cotransport

60 Bulk Transport Endocytosis Exocytosis

61 Sodium Potassium Pump Active Transport Electrochemical gradient

62 Sodium Potassium Pump Active Transport Electrochemical gradient

63 Wednesday, Oct. 9th Objective: Students will understand the how cells communicate. How doesSarin Gas Work Read: How Caffeine Works. Focus: oWhat is going on in your brain in the absence of Sarin? oWhat is going in your brain and body in the presence of Sarin? Group: Diagram the answer to both of the above questions. Discussion: How Cells communicate. The Signal Transduction Pathway

64 Types of Cellular Communication Local Regulators (Cell to Cell) Growth Factors Stimulate cell growth (animals – Paracrine) Synaptic Signaling Neurotransmitters (between nerve cells) Long Distance Signaling Hormones Endocrine Signaling

65 Partner Identify the three stages of cell communication – the signal transduction pathway.

66 Reception Ligand – Molecule that binds to another molecule, generally a larger one.


68 Intracellular Receptors Receptors in Cytoplasm or Nuclear membrane Must pass through the cell membrane Small Non – polar molecules (steroids) Sentence stem: The steroid… and… which results in…

69 Three Types of Membrane Receptors G-Protein Linked Receptors Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ligand Gated Ion Channel

70 G-Protein Linked Receptors The ligand… which… the cellular response.

71 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase The signal Molecule… which… The cellular response.

72 Ligand Gated Ion Channel The neurotransmitter… which causes…

73 Transduction Pathways Protein Kinases: Enzyme that transfers phosphate group from ATP to a protein. Second Messengers Cyclic AMP Calcium

74 Phosphorylation Cascade

75 A phosphorylation cascade is like a … because…

76 Second Messenger c-AMP Adenylyl Cyclase Phosphodiesterase

77 Second Messenger c-AMP Explain

78 Response Control Amplification Specificity of Cell Signaling

79 Response – Specificity of Cell Signaling

80 Friday, Oct. 11th Learning Target: Students will understand the purpose and mechanism of cellular reproduction and its connection to disease. Discussion

81 What is the purpose of reproduction? Is all reproduction accomplished the same way? Questions For You!

82 What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?

83 What is a genome? What is a chromosome? And What it is it made of? What is the difference between somatic cells and gametes? Why do somatic cells have chromosomes in pairs and gametes don’t? If a cell is going to undergo asexual reproduction what must happen to its chromosomes first? Vocabulary Practice


85 Why is there a purple and blue chromosome? Why is there to halves to each chromosome? What are they called? The circle in the middle is a ____________ and it…

86 Asexual reproduction requires cells to do what with their genome? During asexual reproduction their genome is… This results in cells that are… Questions for you!

87 Cell Cycle Interpret

88 Group: Draw the phases of mitosis and describe each phase in one sentence. What board and notebook

89 Objective: Students will understand the overall purpose of mitosis in cell division and the different phases of mitosis. Discussion: Purpose and Stages of Mitosis Lab: Counting Phases / Determining Time Monday, Oct. 14th

90 Prophase Chromosomes Mitotic Spindle Prometaphase / Metaphase Chromosomes Mitotic Spindle / Kinetochore

91 Anaphase Chromosomes Microtubules Telophase Cytokinesis


93 Mitosis 1.Using on onion root tip identify cells in the different stages of the cell cycle. 2. Count at least two full fields of view. If you have not counted 200 cells, then count a third field of view. 3. Calculate the estimated time spent in each phase. It takes24 hours (or 1,440 minutes) for onion root- tip cells to complete the cell cycle. Percent of cells in stage X 1,440 minutes = ___________ minutes of cell cycle spent in stage. Questions: 4.Would the percentage of cells in mitosis be the same for all of the tissues in a plant? 5.Using the same basic techniques predict how cancerous cells would be different?

94 Objective: Students will understand the control mechanisms of the cell cycle. Discussion: Cell Cycle Control Test. Tuesday Oct. 15th

95 Check points and G 0 Control of the cell cycle is like a… because… The checkpoints represent… because… If a cell passes the G1 check point it will go on to divide. If not it stays in G 0

96 How Check points work Players: CDK (Cyclin Dependent Kinases) Kinases – activate or inactivate proteins by phosphorylating them. CDK – activity is dependent on another protein cyclin. Cyclin – Proteins whose concentration fluctuates throughout the life of the cell. MPF – Maturation promoting factor or mitosis promoting factor

97 Starting at G1 cyclin concentration… and then… As cyclin concentration … MPF activity… Concentration of cyclin rises, activates MPF (CDK complex) Cell goes through mitosis – signal transduction pathway Concentration of cyclin vs. MPF activity

98 MPF activity is controlled by… MPF will stimulate the cell to go through mitosis (signal transduction pathway) G2 check point

99 Based on the G2 checkpoint hypothesize on two mutations that might cause cancer. Cancer cells

100 Based on the G2 checkpoint hypothesize on two mutations that might cause cancer. Cancer cells Oncogene: Mutation that causes cyclin concentration to stay elevated Tumor Suppressing genes don’t activate to degrade cyclin

101 Cancer Connection

102 Test: Wednesday Oct. 16 th and 21st


104 Mode of Nutrition Autotroph Carbon – CO2 Photoauotroph Energy – Light Chemoautotroph Energy- Inorg. Compounds Heterotroph Carbon – Organic Compounds Photoheterotroph Energy – Light Chemoheterotroph Energy – Org.Comp.

105 Monday, Sept. 26th Objective: Students will Complete osmosis lab Lab: Diffusion and Osmosis. Potato: Diagram of your lab set up. Data table. Molarity of the potato – How did you determine it? Graph?!?!

106 Tuesday, Sept. 28 th Objective: Students will be able to explain the data from their lab. Collect Data – % differences on board – Class average. Explain the results from your potato lab. Discussion – The cell membrane.

107 Wednesday, Sept. 28th Objective: Students will understand the structure and function of the cell membrane. Turn in Lab (One per group) Data Tables Graph Analysis Paragraph Task Card Discussion

108 Figure 6.20 The cytoskeleton Microtubule 0.25 µm Microfilaments

109 Hypertonic Solution = More solute in solution; less solute in cell = Higher water potential in cell Hypotonic Solution = Less solute in solution; more solute in cell = Higher water potential outside of cell. Isotonic = All is even

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