Presentation on theme: "CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:
1CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 National Bio Rules Committee Chairman KAREN LANCOURNational Bio RulesCommittee Chairman
2Event Rules – 2015 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.
3Event Rules – 2015BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL
4TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout - content informationPractice Activities - sample stations with keySample Tournament – sample problems with keyEvent Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tipsInternet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event InformationBiology-Earth Science CD, Cell Biology CD (updated 2015) in Science Olympiad Store at
5GAME PLAN POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEW HANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDEDINTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELPPRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLSSAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION
6Student Preparation Team work skills Time limits Answering questions Measurement and CalculationsReference materialsReview basic principles of cell biologyConstruct sample stations
7Cell Biology (C) Competition – topics chart Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculationsEvent Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.
8Topics - Regional and State Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDLCellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.)EnzymesCell organelles/structures and their functionsDifferences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellsQUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respirationMembrane structure and functionMovement across membranesImportance of ATPStructure of virusesCell cycle and mitosisChromosome StructureFermentation Products and their uses
9Topics – Nationals All of topics from state and regional plus: Cell communication and membrane receptorsApoptosisEnzyme inhibitionStem cell concepts and usesViral replicationC3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plantsConsequences of changes in protein shapeCancerous vs normal cellsGenomicsBioethics relating to above topics
10Characteristics of a Cell Contain highly organized molecular and biochemical systems and are used to store informationUse energyCapable of movementSense environmental changesCan duplicate (transfer genetic information to offspring)Capable of self-regulation
11Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organellesEukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles
12Animal Cell – “ Compare to a factory” Know the function of cell organelles
13Organelles – “factory components with function” Support - Cell wall , cell membrane cytoskeleton, microtublesControls material entering and leaving - Cell membrane, poresInternal transport system – Endoplasmic reticulumPowerhouse - mitochondriaControl center – nucleus, organelle DNA for mitochondria and chloroplastProduction of key products – ribosomes, endoplastic reticulum, chloroplastsPackaging center for shipment of products – Golgi Apparatus, ERShipment of materials out of cell - Golgi Apparatus, vesiclesStorage of liquids and solids – Vacuole, vesicles, plastids,Recycling center – Lysosomes and perixosomesConvert light energy to chemical energy - chloroplastsAllows new cell factories to be produced – nuclear DNA, centrioles, cell wall
15Chromosome StructureNuclesosomes – Core of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins plus linkerDNASolenoid – coiling of nucleosomes like phone cordc. Chromatin fiber – series of nucleosomesd. Metaphase chromosomes
16CytoskeletonIntermediate filaments are more permanent than microtubules and microfilaments- they provide tensile strength for the cellMicrotubules-composed of tubulin - act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a set of "tracks" for cell organelles and vesicles to move on. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis. When arranged in geometric patterns inside flagella and cilia, they are used for locomotion.Microfilaments-composed of actin - Microfilaments' association with the protein myosin is responsible for muscle contraction. Microfilaments can also carry out cellular movements including gliding, contraction, and cytokinesis.
17Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and supportChloroplast - for photosynthesisLarge central vacuole-for storage and increase surface area
18Cell MembraneComposition: mainly protein and phospholipid; some proteins extend thru membraneProtein function: receptors, transport in and out of cells, structureLipids in membrane can move laterally at about 2um/secSaturated fatty acids in P-lipids make membrane more rigid; unsaturated fatty acids will increase the fluidity of membrane.Note: As temp drops, organisms put more unsaturated fatty acids in membrane
19Movement Across Membranes Diffusion: molecules moving from high to low concentration; concentration = #molecules/volumeOsmosis: diffusion of water across a selective membrane; amount of water is opposite of number molecules-if water is high, solute (molecules) is low.Facilitative diffusion: just like diffusion (high to low) but a protein carrier is involved Note: diffusion will continue but rate of transport with carrier will level off because carrier becomes saturated
20OsmosisHypertonic - high solute concentration relative to another solutionHypotonic - low solute concentration relative to another solutionIsotonic - solute concentration is the same as that of another solution
29pH Hydrogen ion concentration Liquid may be acid, base or neutral 7 is neutralBelow 7 is acidicAbove 7 is basicLogarithmicBuffers in cells
30Acids and BasesAcid-a substance that can take up an electron pair to form a covalent bondBase-a substance that can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bondCondensation reaction-when two molecules are combined into one molecule with the release of one water molecule A + B == C + H2O Ex: 2 amino acids are joined together to form a dipeptide moleculeHydrolysis reaction-when one molecule is broken into two molecules with the addition of water molecule C + H2O == A + B Ex: disaccharide maltose + water == 2 glucose molecules
31Enzymes Catalysts Made of Protein May have non-protein parts Lower Activation EnergyNot changed during reactionEnzyme-substrate complexInhibitionCompetitive - binding at active siteNoncompetitive-binding at a site other than the active site
32Enzymatic MechanismsEnzyme brings reacting molecules into close proximityEnzyme orients reactants into positions to induce favorable interactionsEnzymes alter the chemical environment of the reactants to promote interaction
33Importance of ATP Energy storage chemical for cell processes Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chainMain reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATPInvolved in both photosynthesis and respiration
34PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.
35PHOTOSYNTHESIS Two major parts of photosynthesis Light reactions: (Photolysis) conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPHDark reactions: Calvin Cycle (the thermochemical stage) use of energy (ATP & NADPH) to form carbohydratesPurpose of photosynthesisMain biosynthetic pathway by which carbon and energy enter the web of lifeWhere it occurs – in the ChloroplastLight reactions - granum (several thylakoids) and thylakoid membranesDark reactions - stroma
36Light-Dependent Reactions Non-cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem II-P680 and then Photosystem I – P680) - long pathway - Occurs in eukaryotic plants – algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, & flowering plantsOxygen and NADP are generatedCyclic photophosphorylation – (Photosystem I –P700) – short pathwayOccurs in prokaryotes (Cyanobacteria) with electrons being used over and over againNo oxygen or NADP are generated
38Dark Reactions (light-independent reactions) C3 cycle - Calvin cycle (Calvin-Benson cycle)Major metabolic pathway by which CO2 is fixed during photosynthesis – about 95% of plants on earth are C3 plantsAlso known as the carbon fixation stage, this part of the photosynthetic process occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts.Major purpose - use energy from light reactions to fix CO2 into organic molecules
39Cell RespirationCellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen.NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.
41FermentationsAlcholic Fermentation - Certain types of bacteria and yeast - Ethanol - 2 ATP (no NADH)Lactic Acid Fermentation - certain types of bacteria and overworked musclesLactic acid is found in yogurt, sauerkraut, and overworked muscles2 ATP (no NADH) ... intense muscle activity (little O2 available)
42Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread makingAlcohol – wine making and brewingLactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt
45Cell Cycle G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicateG2 Phase - final preparations for MitosisM Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis
46MitosisProphase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules)Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equatorAnaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules)Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reformsCytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells
48Cancer & Stem CellsCancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growthCancer cells do not respond to the signals that control the growth of most cellsCancer cells divide uncontrollablyThey form masses of cells called tumors, which can damage surrounding tissuesCancer cells do not stop growing when they touch other cellsThey continue to grow and divide until their supply of nutrients is used upThese cells may break loose from tumors and spread throughout the bodyStem Cells are unspecialized that have the potential to differentiate into any type of cellThey are found in human embryos, umbilical cord blood and some adult cellsThey are used to repair injuries as brain and spinal cord, cure some diseases as diabetes,and replace organs as liver tissue and heart valves
49Death of Cells – by injurious agents or by being induced to commit suicide Apoptosis - A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding areaNecrosis - The uncontrolled cell death that occurs as a response to lethal injury leading to a severe physical damage in the cell as well as the tissue containing it
50Structure of Viruses Non-cellular infectious agent Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coatReplicates only after its genetic material enters a host cellSubverts the host’s metabolic machinery