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CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

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Presentation on theme: "CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

2 Event Rules – 2015 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.

3 Event Rules – 2015 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4 TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout - content information Training Handout - content information Practice Activities - sample stations with key Practice Activities - sample stations with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Information Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Informationwww.soinc.org Biology-Earth Science CD, Cell Biology CD (updated 2015) in Science Olympiad Store at Biology-Earth Science CD, Cell Biology CD (updated 2015) in Science Olympiad Store at

5 GAME PLAN POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEW POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEW HANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDED HANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDED INTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELP INTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELP PRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLS PRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLS SAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION SAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION

6 Student Preparation Team work skills Team work skills Time limits Time limits Answering questions Answering questions Measurement and Calculations Measurement and Calculations Reference materials Reference materials Review basic principles of cell biology Review basic principles of cell biology Construct sample stations Construct sample stations

7 Cell Biology (C) Competition – topics chart Competition – topics chart Process Skillsobservations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required. Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.

8 Topics - Regional and State Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Cellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.) Cellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.) Enzymes Enzymes Cell organelles/structures and their functions Cell organelles/structures and their functions Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration Membrane structure and function Membrane structure and function Movement across membranes Movement across membranes Importance of ATP Importance of ATP Structure of viruses Structure of viruses Cell cycle and mitosis Cell cycle and mitosis Chromosome Structure Chromosome Structure Fermentation Products and their uses Fermentation Products and their uses

9 Topics – Nationals All of topics from state and regional plus: All of topics from state and regional plus: Cell communication and membrane receptors Cell communication and membrane receptors Apoptosis Apoptosis Enzyme inhibition Enzyme inhibition Stem cell concepts and uses Stem cell concepts and uses Viral replication Viral replication C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants Consequences of changes in protein shape Consequences of changes in protein shape Cancerous vs normal cells Cancerous vs normal cells Genomics Genomics Bioethics relating to above topics Bioethics relating to above topics

10 Characteristics of a Cell Contain highly organized molecular and biochemical systems and are used to store information Use energy Capable of movement Sense environmental changes Can duplicate (transfer genetic information to offspring) Capable of self-regulation

11 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles

12 Animal Cell – “ Compare to a factory” Know the function of cell organelles

13 Organelles – “factory components with function” Support - Cell wall, cell membrane cytoskeleton, microtubles Controls material entering and leaving - Cell membrane, pores Internal transport system – Endoplasmic reticulum Powerhouse - mitochondria Control center – nucleus, organelle DNA for mitochondria and chloroplast Production of key products – ribosomes, endoplastic reticulum, chloroplasts Packaging center for shipment of products – Golgi Apparatus, ER Shipment of materials out of cell - Golgi Apparatus, vesicles Storage of liquids and solids – Vacuole, vesicles, plastids, Recycling center – Lysosomes and perixosomes Convert light energy to chemical energy - chloroplasts Allows new cell factories to be produced – nuclear DNA, centrioles, cell wall

14 Nucleus Nuclear envelope – double membrane Nuclear envelope – double membrane chromatin – DNA chromatin – DNA RNA RNA nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units

15 Chromosome Structure a.Nuclesosomes – Core of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins plus linkerDNA b.Solenoid – coiling of nucleosomes like phone cord c. Chromatin fiber – series of nucleosomes d. Metaphase chromosomes

16 Cytoskeleton Intermediate filaments are more permanent than microtubules and microfilaments- they provide tensile strength for the cell Microtubules-composed of tubulin - act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a set of "tracks" for cell organelles and vesicles to move on. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis. When arranged in geometric patterns inside flagella and cilia, they are used for locomotion. Microfilaments-composed of actin - Microfilaments' association with the protein myosin is responsible for muscle contraction. Microfilaments can also carry out cellular movements including gliding, contraction, and cytokinesis.

17 Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and support Chloroplast - for photosynthesis Large central vacuole- for storage and increase surface area

18 Cell Membrane Composition: mainly protein and phospholipid; some proteins extend thru membrane Protein function: receptors, transport in and out of cells, structure Lipids in membrane can move laterally at about 2um/sec Saturated fatty acids in P-lipids make membrane more rigid; unsaturated fatty acids will increase the fluidity of membrane. Note: As temp drops, organisms put more unsaturated fatty acids in membrane

19 Movement Across Membranes Diffusion: molecules moving from high to low concentration; concentration = #molecules/volume Osmosis: diffusion of water across a selective membrane; amount of water is opposite of number molecules-if water is high, solute (molecules) is low. Facilitative diffusion: just like diffusion (high to low) but a protein carrier is involved Note: diffusion will continue but rate of transport with carrier will level off because carrier becomes saturated

20 Osmosis Hypertonic - high solute concentration relative to another solution Hypotonic - low solute concentration relative to another solution Isotonic - solute concentration is the same as that of another solution

21 Plant Cells – Turgor Pressure and Plasmolysis

22 Animal Cells – in different solutions

23 Passive Transport – no energy used

24 Active Transport – uses energy

25 Endocytosis and Exocytosis

26

27 Monomers and Polymers monomerpolymerexampleReagents simple sugar (monosaccharide) polysaccharidestarch, cellulose, glycogen (animal) Benedicts-glucose Iodine-starch amino acidprotein, polypeptide hair, enzyme, hemoglobin, insulin Ninhydrin, Biuret nucleotidenucleic acidDNA, RNAmethyl green fatty acid/glycerolfat or tri glyceride cooking oil, buttergrease test with brown paper

28 Chemical Interactions

29 pH Hydrogen ion concentration Hydrogen ion concentration Liquid may be acid, Liquid may be acid, base or neutral base or neutral 7 is neutral 7 is neutral Below 7 is acidic Below 7 is acidic Above 7 is basic Above 7 is basic Logarithmic Logarithmic Buffers in cells Buffers in cells

30 Acids and Bases Acid-a substance that can take up an electron pair to form a covalent bond Base-a substance that can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bond Condensation reaction-when two molecules are combined into one molecule with the release of one water molecule A + B == C + H 2 O Ex: 2 amino acids are joined together to form a dipeptide molecule Hydrolysis reaction-when one molecule is broken into two molecules with the addition of water molecule C + H 2 O == A + B Ex: disaccharide maltose + water == 2 glucose molecules

31 Enzymes Catalysts Catalysts Made of Protein Made of Protein May have non-protein parts May have non-protein parts Lower Activation Energy Lower Activation Energy Not changed during reaction Not changed during reaction Enzyme-substrate complex Enzyme-substrate complex Inhibition Inhibition Competitive - Competitive - binding at active site Noncompetitive- Noncompetitive-binding at a site other than the active site

32 Enzymatic Mechanisms Enzyme brings reacting molecules into close proximity Enzyme orients reactants into positions to induce favorable interactions Enzymes alter the chemical environment of the reactants to promote interaction

33 Importance of ATP Energy storage chemical for cell processes Energy storage chemical for cell processes Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration

34 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Photosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.

35 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Two major parts of photosynthesis Light reactions: (Photolysis) conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH Dark reactions: Calvin Cycle (the thermochemical stage) use of energy (ATP & NADPH) to form carbohydratesCalvin Cycle Purpose of photosynthesis Main biosynthetic pathway by which carbon and energy enter the web of life Where it occurs – in the Chloroplast Light reactions - granum (several thylakoids) and thylakoid membranes Dark reactions - stroma

36 Light-Dependent Reactions Non-cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem II-P680 and then Photosystem I – P680) - long pathway - Occurs in eukaryotic plants – algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, & flowering plants Oxygen and NADP are generated Cyclic photophosphorylation – (Photosystem I –P700) – short pathway Occurs in prokaryotes (Cyanobacteria) with electrons being used over and over again No oxygen or NADP are generated

37 Electron Transport Chain

38 Dark Reactions (light-independent reactions) C3 cycle - Calvin cycle (Calvin- Benson cycle)  Major metabolic pathway by which CO2 is fixed during photosynthesis – about 95% of plants on earth are C3 plants  Also known as the carbon fixation stage, this part of the photosynthetic process occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts.stroma  Major purpose - use energy from light reactions to fix CO 2 into organic molecules

39 Cell Respiration Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.

40 Glycolysis

41 Fermentations Alcholic Fermentation - Certain types of bacteria and yeast - Ethanol - 2 ATP (no NADH) Lactic Acid Fermentation - certain types of bacteria and overworked muscles Lactic acid is found in yogurt, sauerkraut, and overworked muscles Lactic acid is found in yogurt, sauerkraut, and overworked muscles 2 ATP (no NADH)... intense muscle activity (little O 2 available) 2 ATP (no NADH)... intense muscle activity (little O 2 available)

42 Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread making Carbon dioxide – bread making Alcohol – wine making and brewing Alcohol – wine making and brewing Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt

43 Kreb Cycle – Citric Acid Cycle

44 Electron Transport Oxidative Phosphorylation

45 Cell Cycle G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis

46 Mitosis Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells

47 Control of Cell Cycle

48 Cancer & Stem Cells Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that control the growth of most cells Cancer cells divide uncontrollably They form masses of cells called tumors, which can damage surrounding tissues Cancer cells do not stop growing when they touch other cells They continue to grow and divide until their supply of nutrients is used up These cells may break loose from tumors and spread throughout the body Stem Cells are unspecialized that have the potential to differentiate into any type of cell They are found in human embryos, umbilical cord blood and some adult cells They are used to repair injuries as brain and spinal cord, cure some diseases as diabetes, and replace organs as liver tissue and heart valves

49 Apoptosis - A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area Necrosis - The uncontrolled cell death that occurs as a response to lethal injury leading to a severe physical damage in the cell as well as the tissue containing it Death of Cells Death of Cells – by injurious agents or by being induced to commit suicide

50 Structure of Viruses Non-cellular infectious agent Non-cellular infectious agent Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery

51 Viral Reproduction


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