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Ergot Fungi JAMES FRANCIS MYCOLOGY MONDAY 6:30. Overview  During this presentation we will cover  Ergot Fungi  Types of Ergot Fungi  The Life Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergot Fungi JAMES FRANCIS MYCOLOGY MONDAY 6:30. Overview  During this presentation we will cover  Ergot Fungi  Types of Ergot Fungi  The Life Cycle."— Presentation transcript:


2 Overview  During this presentation we will cover  Ergot Fungi  Types of Ergot Fungi  The Life Cycle  The Varieties of Claviceps purpurea  Identification,Removal, and Prevention  Ergotism  Symptoms and Treatment  Historical Relevance  Medicinal Uses  LSD  Developments  Effect  Uses  Conclusions

3 Types of Ergot Fungi  Belong in the genus Claviceps  50 known species  Prominent Members are  Claviceps purpurea – rye ergot fungi  Grows on rye and related plants  Known to cause ergotism due to consumption of fruiting structure  Claviceps fusiformis  Grows on Peal millet and buffel grasses  Claviceps paspali  Grows on dallis grasses  Claviceps Africana  Grows on sorghum

4 Life Cycle

5 Claviceps purpurea varieties  Occur due to an outcrossing of rye with other wheat species such as wheat and barley  Differ in host specificity  G1 - found on grasses located in open meadows or fields  G2 - found in moist forest or mountain habitats  G3 – found on salt water grasses (C. purpurea var. spartinae)

6 Identification, Removal, and Prevention  Milled ergot produces a fine red powder but is easily missed in dark rye flower.  Dark purple or black fungi bodies should be removed before harvest, size is dependent on host species  Fields should be deep plowed in order to bury ergot head as they will not germinate if buried more than one inch deep  Mowing of wild and escaped grasses and pastures before flowering has been shown to prevent ergot infections  Commercially prepared animals feeds are regulated for ergot to prevent consumption  Homegrown green should be screened prior to feeding

7 Ergotism  Long term effect of ergot poisoning caused by the ingestion of alkaloids  Causes  Toxic Ergot alkaloids have deleterious side effects  Can be caused through ingestion of ergot based drugs, contaminated bread, or passed on through lactation  Symptoms  Effects neurotransmission and circulation  Central nervous system  Painful seizures, spasms, diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, mania, headaches, nausea, vomiting,  Gangrenous  Vasoconstriction effecting distal structures  Death of skin, weak peripheral pulses, loss of sensation, death of tissue  Treatment  Use of herbs that increase blood flow

8 Historical Relevance  First referenced to ergotism occurred in 857 – “a Great plague of swollen blisters consumed the people by a loathsome rot, so that their limbs were loosened and fell off before death” in Annales Xantenses  Outbreaks occurred around Mediterranean  Middle ages identified as Saint Anthony’s Fire or ignis sacer (holy fire), named after an order of monks that were successful in treating the ailment.  Outbreaks occurred in France and England  Denis Dodart reported to French Royal Academy of Science in 1676 a relation between the fungus found on rye on bread poisoning, not defined as ergotism till 1853  Evidence that ergot poisoning may have been used in ritual killings of certain bog bodies  Has been used an explanation of bewitchment (example Salem Witch Trials)  Outbreaks still occur in under developed countries

9 Medical Uses of Ergot Alkaloids  Medicines to treat a variety of conditions have been biosynthesized from ergot fungi  Can be classified in to two classes  derivatives of 6,8-dimethylergoline  lysergic acid derivatives  Pharmaceutical preparations include  Cafergot (Caffeine and Ergotamine)  Treatment of migraine  Ergometrine  Induction of uterine contractions and control of bleeding after child birth  Used to expel the placenta or to stop hemorrhaging

10 LSD  Semisynthetic psychedelic drug  Known for its psychological effects  Altered thinking, visuals, altered sense of space and time  Key role in 1960’s counter culture as a recreational drug  Used in psychedelic therapy  Non addictive, not known to cause brain damage  May have adverse psychiatric reactions such as paranoia and delusions

11 Development  First synthesized in 1938 by Albert Hofman from ergotamine  Name comes from an abbreviation of Lysergic acid diethylamide  Various psychiatric uses developed by Sandoz laboratories in 1947  Used by CIA in 1950’s believed int could be used for mind control or chemical warfare  Propagated use through young servicemen and college campuses  Use eventually led to prohibition  Is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, potency may last for years if stored correctly  Pure form is odorless colorless and tasteless  Can be delivered orally through and absorbent or in a liquid form through injection  Very potent  Experiments resumed in 2009 for the first time in 35 years

12 Effects  Physical  Effect may be secondary to a psychological effect  Pupil dilation, effect on appetite, wakefulness, numbness, weakness, nausea, elevated blood sugar, heart rate increase, jaw cleansing, perspiration, tremors, saliva and mucus production  Psychological  Also called a trip  May vary from person to person, can depend on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind, environment, and dose strength  Can have long term psychoemotioanl effects  Bad trips  Sensory  Effects begin between 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion  Altered sensory experiences may occur between 6 to 14 hours after the trip  Altered senses, emotions, memories, time and awareness

13 Uses  LSD has been used in the following ways in the 1950’s and 1960’s  Psychotherapy  Believe to increase effect of psycho therapy  End of life anxiety  Help to cope with impending deaths  Alcoholism  Those treated with LSD were shown to misuse alcohol almost 60% less, effects lasted 6 months  Pain  Causes less distress about pain does not relieve it  Spiritual  May cause intense spiritual experiences that include out of body  Headaches  Derived from a drug used to treat headaches  Creativity  Explored in the 1950s and 1960s by various artists

14 Conclusions  Ergot has been known by humans for centuries but was still able to cause sickness and death  Through science we were able to refine and isolate the best traits of this type of Fungi in the form of various drugs and prevent outbreaks of ergot poisoning.  LSD has a multitude of effects that may prove harmful with use

15 Works Cited Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Frederickson, Debra E.; McLaren, Neal W.; Odvody, Gary N.; Ryley, Malcolm J. (1998). "Ergot: A New Disease Threat to Sorghum in the Americas and Australia". Plant Disease 82 (4): 356. Butler, M.D., Alderman, S. C., Hammond, P.C., Berry, R. E. (2001). "Association of Insects and Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in Kentucky Bluegrass Seed Production Fields". J. Econ. Entomol. 94 (6): 1471– 1476. Lüscher C, Ungless MA (November 2006). "The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs". PLoS Med. 3 (11): e437. Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006). "Ergot alkaloids – biology and molecular biology". The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology 63: 45–86. Spanos NP, Gottlieb J (December 1976). "Ergotism and the Salem Village witch trials". Science 194 (4272): 1390–4. Tudzynski P, Correia T, Keller U (2001). "Biotechnology and genetics of ergot alkaloids". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 57 (5–6): 4593–4605.

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