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JAMES Francis Mycology Monday 6:30

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1 JAMES Francis Mycology Monday 6:30
Ergot Fungi JAMES Francis Mycology Monday 6:30

2 Overview During this presentation we will cover Ergot Fungi Ergotism
Types of Ergot Fungi The Life Cycle The Varieties of Claviceps purpurea Identification,Removal, and Prevention Ergotism Symptoms and Treatment Historical Relevance Medicinal Uses LSD Developments Effect Uses Conclusions

3 Types of Ergot Fungi Belong in the genus Claviceps 50 known species
Prominent Members are Claviceps purpurea – rye ergot fungi Grows on rye and related plants Known to cause ergotism due to consumption of fruiting structure Claviceps fusiformis Grows on Peal millet and buffel grasses Claviceps paspali Grows on dallis grasses Claviceps Africana Grows on sorghum

4 Life Cycle

5 Claviceps purpurea varieties
Occur due to an outcrossing of rye with other wheat species such as wheat and barley Differ in host specificity G1 - found on grasses located in open meadows or fields G2 - found in moist forest or mountain habitats G3 – found on salt water grasses (C. purpurea var. spartinae)

6 Identification, Removal, and Prevention
Milled ergot produces a fine red powder but is easily missed in dark rye flower. Dark purple or black fungi bodies should be removed before harvest, size is dependent on host species Fields should be deep plowed in order to bury ergot head as they will not germinate if buried more than one inch deep Mowing of wild and escaped grasses and pastures before flowering has been shown to prevent ergot infections Commercially prepared animals feeds are regulated for ergot to prevent consumption Homegrown green should be screened prior to feeding

7 Ergotism Long term effect of ergot poisoning caused by the ingestion of alkaloids Causes Toxic Ergot alkaloids have deleterious side effects Can be caused through ingestion of ergot based drugs, contaminated bread, or passed on through lactation Symptoms Effects neurotransmission and circulation Central nervous system Painful seizures, spasms, diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, mania , headaches, nausea, vomiting, Gangrenous Vasoconstriction effecting distal structures Death of skin, weak peripheral pulses, loss of sensation, death of tissue Treatment Use of herbs that increase blood flow

8 Historical Relevance First referenced to ergotism occurred in 857 – “a Great plague of swollen blisters consumed the people by a loathsome rot, so that their limbs were loosened and fell off before death” in Annales Xantenses Outbreaks occurred around Mediterranean Middle ages identified as Saint Anthony’s Fire or ignis sacer (holy fire), named after an order of monks that were successful in treating the ailment. Outbreaks occurred in France and England Denis Dodart reported to French Royal Academy of Science in 1676 a relation between the fungus found on rye on bread poisoning, not defined as ergotism till Evidence that ergot poisoning may have been used in ritual killings of certain bog bodies Has been used an explanation of bewitchment (example Salem Witch Trials) Outbreaks still occur in under developed countries

9 Medical Uses of Ergot Alkaloids
Medicines to treat a variety of conditions have been biosynthesized from ergot fungi Can be classified in to two classes derivatives of 6,8-dimethylergoline lysergic acid derivatives Pharmaceutical preparations include Cafergot (Caffeine and Ergotamine) Treatment of migraine Ergometrine Induction of uterine contractions and control of bleeding after child birth Used to expel the placenta or to stop hemorrhaging

10 LSD Semisynthetic psychedelic drug Known for its psychological effects
Altered thinking, visuals, altered sense of space and time Key role in 1960’s counter culture as a recreational drug Used in psychedelic therapy Non addictive, not known to cause brain damage May have adverse psychiatric reactions such as paranoia and delusions

11 Development First synthesized in 1938 by Albert Hofman from ergotamine
Name comes from an abbreviation of Lysergic acid diethylamide Various psychiatric uses developed by Sandoz laboratories in 1947 Used by CIA in 1950’s believed int could be used for mind control or chemical warfare Propagated use through young servicemen and college campuses Use eventually led to prohibition Is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, potency may last for years if stored correctly Pure form is odorless colorless and tasteless Can be delivered orally through and absorbent or in a liquid form through injection Very potent Experiments resumed in 2009 for the first time in 35 years

12 Effects Physical Psychological Sensory
Effect may be secondary to a psychological effect Pupil dilation, effect on appetite, wakefulness, numbness, weakness, nausea, elevated blood sugar, heart rate increase, jaw cleansing, perspiration, tremors, saliva and mucus production Psychological Also called a trip May vary from person to person, can depend on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind, environment, and dose strength Can have long term psychoemotioanl effects Bad trips Sensory Effects begin between 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion Altered sensory experiences may occur between 6 to 14 hours after the trip Altered senses, emotions, memories, time and awareness

13 Uses LSD has been used in the following ways in the 1950’s and 1960’s
Psychotherapy Believe to increase effect of psycho therapy End of life anxiety Help to cope with impending deaths Alcoholism Those treated with LSD were shown to misuse alcohol almost 60% less, effects lasted 6 months Pain Causes less distress about pain does not relieve it Spiritual May cause intense spiritual experiences that include out of body Headaches Derived from a drug used to treat headaches Creativity Explored in the 1950s and 1960s by various artists

14 Conclusions Ergot has been known by humans for centuries but was still able to cause sickness and death Through science we were able to refine and isolate the best traits of this type of Fungi in the form of various drugs and prevent outbreaks of ergot poisoning. LSD has a multitude of effects that may prove harmful with use

15 Works Cited Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Frederickson, Debra E.; McLaren, Neal W.; Odvody, Gary N.; Ryley, Malcolm J. (1998). "Ergot: A New Disease Threat to Sorghum in the Americas and Australia". Plant Disease 82 (4): 356. Butler, M.D., Alderman, S. C., Hammond, P.C., Berry, R. E. (2001). "Association of Insects and Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in Kentucky Bluegrass Seed Production Fields". J. Econ. Entomol. 94 (6): 1471– Lüscher C, Ungless MA (November 2006). "The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs". PLoS Med. 3 (11): e437. Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006). "Ergot alkaloids – biology and molecular biology". The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology 63: 45–86. Spanos NP, Gottlieb J (December 1976). "Ergotism and the Salem Village witch trials". Science (4272): 1390–4. Tudzynski P, Correia T, Keller U (2001). "Biotechnology and genetics of ergot alkaloids". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 57 (5–6): 4593–4605.

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