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Seed Health Testing for Medicinal Plants is a Must: Case Studies Anise, Fennel, Fenugreek and Black Cumin Seeds Mohamed A. Elwakil Prof. Emeritus of Plant.

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Presentation on theme: "Seed Health Testing for Medicinal Plants is a Must: Case Studies Anise, Fennel, Fenugreek and Black Cumin Seeds Mohamed A. Elwakil Prof. Emeritus of Plant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed Health Testing for Medicinal Plants is a Must: Case Studies Anise, Fennel, Fenugreek and Black Cumin Seeds Mohamed A. Elwakil Prof. Emeritus of Plant Pathology, Mansoura Univ., El-Mansoura, Egypt, Web: mwakil.netmwakil.net ICPS 2015, Dubai

2 Seed –A Horse of Hunger or Source of Life “1985” Dr. Paul Neergaard, The father of Seed-Pathology Science Background:

3 Most seed-borne fungi have the potential to produce toxins e.g:  Acremonium strictum  Alternaria alternata  Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. nidulans, A. tamari and A. versicolor)  Chaetomium globosum  Cladosporium cladosporides  Curvularia lunata 1 st Statement

4 Continue  Fusarium species (F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. pallidoroseum, F. solani and F. verticillioides)  Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium Chrysogenum  Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys atra  Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum

5 A- Habit characters (H.C.) of seed-borne fungi on seeds (stereoscopic microscopy) For The Primary identification of associated fungi with seeds 2 nd Statement: Seed Pathology Science

6 Fig. 1: H.C. of Alternaria radicina on anise seed. Examples

7 Fig. 2: H.C. of Fusarium solani on anise seed.

8 Fig. 3: H.C. of Fusarium equiseti on black cumin seed.

9 Fig. 4: H.C. of Fusarium oxysporum on fennel seed.

10 Fig. 5: H.C. of Verticillium dahliae on fenugreek seed.

11 Identification of most common mycotoxins produced by seed-borne fungi 3 rd Statement

12 Ochratoxin A Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) Zearalenone Cladosporin Trichothecenes (TCs) Fumonisins B1, B2 Patulin Emodin Satratoxins, F,G,H Citrinin Mycotoxins tree

13 When using medicinal seeds infested or infected with seed-borne fungi able to produce toxins in our daily diets or medications, acute and chronic effects may occur including: Hepatotoxicity Teratogenicity Mutagenicity 4 th Statement

14 Resulting in: Hepatitis Hemorrhage Immunosuppression Hepatic carcinoma Esophageal cancer Kidney failure

15 Cephalosporium spp. Trichoderma spp. Seed-borne fungi and toxin they produce Trichothecenes  T-2  Nevalenol  Vomitoxin (Deoxynivalenol)  Anguidine (Diacetoxyscipenol) Trichothecenes  T-2  Nevalenol  Vomitoxin (Deoxynivalenol)  Anguidine (Diacetoxyscipenol) Fusarium spp. Verticillium porium Stachybotrys spp. Myrothecium spp. Trichothecium spp. Powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis 5 th StatementExample 1

16 Aflatoxins  B1  B2  G1  G2 Aflatoxins  B1  B2  G1  G2 Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxicosis Carcinogenic Aflatoxicosis Carcinogenic Example 2

17 Ochratoxicosis Human Carcinogen Ochratoxicosis Human Carcinogen Ochratoxins Ochratoxin A Ochratoxins Ochratoxin A Aspergillus spp.  (A. ochraceus)  (A. niger) Aspergillus spp.  (A. ochraceus)  (A. niger) Penicillium spp.  (P. verrucosum)  (P. carbonarius) Penicillium spp.  (P. verrucosum)  (P. carbonarius) Ubiquitous Example 3

18 Estrogenic Syndrome Potent estrogenic metabolite Estrogenic Syndrome Potent estrogenic metabolite Zearalenone Gibberella spp. Fusarium spp. Example 4

19 Is seed health testing a must? Yes it is Because When one or more fungus of potential to produce toxins are present on or in seeds, serious implications for human health will, for sure, occur. 6 th Statement So far Seed-borne fungi should be a component of the integrated commodity management program of the drug industry.

20 The Present Status Lack of interest from the Drug industry. Lack of Awareness of care given about Medicinal Seed Health Testing. 7 th Statement

21 What are the methods recommended for seed-health? The International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) has tests for seeds of different crops i.e.  Standard blotter test  Deep-freezing test  Agar plate test The authors designed an alkaline seed-bed method for detecting the lurked seed-borne fungi. 8 th Statement

22 To absorb this fact, here is a case study Recorded mycotoxin producing fungi on Fenugreek, Anise, Black cumin and Fennel Genera and species Frequency % FenugreekAnise Black cuminFennel Acremonium strictum Alternaria alternata A. radicina A. tenuis2000 Aspergillus flavipes25102 A. fumigatus A. parasiticus4543 A. candidus01500 A. clavatus25640 A. flavus A. nidulans A. niger A. ochraceus A. oryzae A. tamarii A. terreus A. versicolor th Statement:

23 Continue Genera and species Frequency % FenugreekAnise Black cumin Fennel Chaetomium elatum C. atrobrunneum3500 C. bostrychodes01007 C. globosum0500 C. spirale Cladosporium cladosporioides C. herbarum C. oxysporum C. sphaerospermum1005 C. tenuissimum C. uredinicola2504

24 Continue Genera and species Frequency % FenugreekAnise Black cumin Fennel Curvularia lunata01664 C. pallescens1500 C. senegalensis2000 Fusarium equiseti F. oxysporum F. pallidoroseum F. solani F. subglutinans01500 F. verticillioides Mucor circinelloides M. hiemalis51523 M. racemosus0000 Myrothecium verrucaria0719

25 Continue Genera and species Frequency % FenugreekAniseBlack cuminFennel Penicillium citrinum P. chrysogenum P. purpurogenum11709 P. aurantiogriseum0700 P. brevicompactum0400 P. corylcphilum P. funiculosum10200 P. janthinellum0008 P. notatum0005 P. spinulosum0500

26 Continue Genera and species Frequency % FenugreekAnise Black cumin Fennel Rhizopus arrhizus R. oryzae R. stolonifer Stachybotrys atra34204 S. chartarum Trichoderma hamatum31200 T. harzianum T. viride1404 Trichothecium rosum3610 Verticillium albo-atrum V. chlamydosporium1601 V. dahliae10 97 V. nubilum0401

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28 Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Khalid Ghoneem for his efforts in compiling the data of our work. My thanks also dedicated to Dr. Mohamed El-Metwally for his assistance in preparing the presentation. Thanks to Wael Elwakil, Doctor of Plant Medicine Student at University of Florida for his reviews.

29 Massage from the Glorious Nelson Mandela

30 Thank you for your attention This presentation is available on the internet when search for the title: Seed Health Testing for Medicinal Plants is a Must: Case Studies Anise, Fennel, Fenugreek and Black Cumin Seeds (Presentation) All the best


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