2ChromosomesSister ChromatidsChromosomes are made up of DNA which carries the cells genetic informationHuman body cells have 46 chromosomes (in 23 pairs)Sex cells (gametes aka egg and sperm) only have 23 chromosomesBefore cell division occurs, each chromosome replicates (or copies itself)Centromere
3Cell Growth and Division Cell Cycle is a series of events that cells go through as they grow, prepare for division and divide into two identical daughter cellsTwo major stages in a cells life are:InterphaseM Phase or cell division
4InterphaseInterphase is the phase where the cell grows and prepares to divide.Interphase is divided into three phases:G1 Phase - growthS Phase – replication (copying) chromosomesG2 Phase – further growth* A lot is happening during G1, S and G2 phases!
5M Phase M Phase is cell division which includes two steps: Mitosis- this is division of the nucleusCytokinesis – this is division of the cytoplasm
6Mitosis Mitosis is divided into four phases: Prophase – chromosomes condense, becoming visible; centrioles move to opposite sides of nucleus; nuclear envelope dissolvesMetaphase – chromosomes line up across middle of cellAnaphase – sister chromatids splitTelophase - sister chromatids move to opposite sides of cell and new nuclear envelopes form
8Cytokinesis Cytokinesis is occurring at the same time as telophase The cell membrane pinches the cytoplasm into two equal parts.Two new daughter cells are now formed and are genetically identical to the parent cell.This is the end of the cell cycle.
9MEIOSISMeiosis is process where the number of chromosomes per cell is divided in half by separating homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Gametes are produced by meiosis. What does all that mean???
10Chromosomes are made up of DNA which carries the cells genetic information Genes are found on the chromosomes.Genes are chemical factors that determine traits. (Ex. Eye color, hair color, height, etc.)Different forms of a gene are called alleles(Ex. Blue or brown eyes, brunette or auburn)* The symbol N represents the number of chromosomes in a gamete (sex cell)
11Homologous chromosome means that each chromosome that comes from the male has a corresponding chromosome from the female Homologous chromosome have DNA segments, or genes, for the same trait
12Diploid cells have both sets of homologous chromosomes (one set from momma and one from the baby’s daddy)All cells in your body (except egg and sperm) are diploidThese cells are called somatic cells2N
13Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes as their parent cells Gametes (egg and sperm) are haploidGametes are genetically different than the parent cell and one anotherN
15Human has 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes in human gametes? 23Pineapple has 25 chromosomes in its gametes. What is it’s haploid number?25A giraffe has a diploid number of 62. What is it’s haploid number?31
17First Step Replication During meiosis, chromosomes are replicated once in S phase (just like mitosis) into sister chromatids.This occurs so that each of the 46 chromosomes exists as a duplicated sister chromatid.
18Meiosis I HOMOLOGUES (1-23) are segregated into different cells. Results in 2 cells that each have 1 copy of each of the 23 chromosomes (still duplicated from DNA replication).
19Prophase I Crossing over Homologous chromosomes in the cell pair up alongside each other lengthwise forming a tetradSwap bits and pieces of their chromosomes, shuffling the genomeResults in NEW Chromosomes that did not exist before in the parent
21Meiosis IISISTER CHROMATIDS of each of the 23 chromosomes are pulled apart just as they are in mitosisResults in 4 cells that have 1 copy of each of the 23 chromosomes (now unduplicated again)Now officially haploid
23Meiosis occurs in two stages Meiosis ITwo cells form with sets of chromosomes and alleles that are different from each otherMeiosis IICells divide again without DNA replication forming four cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
24Summary of Mitosis/Meiosis Results in 2 identical cells that are diploid (2N) and are exactly like the parent cellMeiosisResults in 4 cells that have half the number of chromosomes, haploid (N), as the parent cell and are genetically different from one anotherGenetic Recombination
26Linked Genes - Genes located closely together are linked Crossing over is more likely to occur between genes that are far apart rather than linked which are close together. Polyploidy – The occurrence of one or more extra chromosomes in an organism. This is not good in animals but is beneficial in plants (crop plants are stronger and bigger)