Another School Year — Another School Year — Unit One What For?
Main Points About the author –his voice –how he pictures the world –Other background information Check of Pre-class Work Text appreciation –structure analysis –topic discussion Language understanding –sentence paraphrase –word study –writing techniques
Warming-up Qs 1. Did you have a good holiday? What did you do during the holiday? 2. Have you had any reflections on your first term college life? What do you think is your most impressive experience in the last semester? 3. According to your own understanding, what are the major differences between high school and college educations?
About the Author John Anthony Ciardi was an American poet, translator, and etymologist. Ciardi was born in Boston's Little Italy. He attended Bates College, Tufts College and the University of Michigan.Americanpoet translator etymologist BostonLittle ItalyBates CollegeTufts CollegeUniversity of Michigan After serving in the Army Air Corps during World War II, he taught at the University of Kansas City, Harvard, and finally at Rutgers. In 1961, he left his tenured position Army Air Corps World War II University of Kansas CityHarvardRutgers tenure for an independent career.
Ciardi was well known for his poetry for adults and children and his English translations of Dante Alighieri's great works. He worked with Isaac Asimov on collections of limericks. As an etymologist, he is known for a three-volume Browser's Dictionary and his broadcasts on National Public Radio, both as host of A Word in Your Ear and as a commentator for Morning Edition and Weekend Edition. Etymologies and commentary on words such as daisy, demijohn, jimmies (the sprinkles on doughnuts and ice cream), gerrymander, glitch, snafu, cretin, and baseball, among others, are available from the archives of NPR's website. He died on Easter Sunday, 1986 of a heart attack in New Jersey, but not before composing his own epitaph:Dante AlighieriIsaac AsimovlimericksNational Public RadioMorning EditionEtymologies daisydemijohnjimmiesdoughnut ice creamgerrymanderglitchsnafucretin baseballNPR's websiteEaster Sundayheart attack New Jerseyepitaph
Edward M. Cifelli is the author of John Ciardi: A Biography; he has also edited The Collected Poems ofJohn Ciardi. the millionaire poet: A humbly born son of Italian immigrants in Boston ’ s Little Italy, Ciardi had built by 1986 a solid reputation in six different areas as a kind of larger-than-life cultural legend. well known for his poetry, 21 volumes of it. master of what he liked to call the Unimportant Poem, the sort of poem written to celebrate nothing more important than the sipping of coffee at breakfast or the watching of birds in the backyard. He wrote love poems too, and poems about his Italian heritage. He was being humble when he called his poems "unimportant" because they were about the most important subject of all not just his own life, but everyone ’ s.
The Author ’ s Voice Nona Domenica Garnaro sits in the sun on the step of her house in Calabria. There are seven men and four women in the village who call her Mama, and the orange trees fountain their blooms down all the hill and valley. No one can see more memory from this step than Nona Domenica. When she folds her hands in her lap they fall together like two Christs fallen from a driftwood shrine. All their weathers are twisted into them. There is that art in them that will not be carved but can only be waited for. These hands are not sad nor happy nor tired nor strong. They are simply complete. They lie still in her lap and she sits waiting quietly in the sun for what will happen, as for example, a petal may blow down on the wind and lie across both of her thumbs, and she look down at it. Nona Domenica Garnaro
Comedies: (1) 'The Tempest', 'As You Like It', 'The Winter's Tale', 'The Merchant of Venice', Twelfth Night', 'Much Ado about Nothing', 'Cymbeline', 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; (2) 'The Merry Wives of Windsor', 'The Taming of the Shrew', 'Two Gentlemen of Verona', 'All's Well That Ends Well', 'A Comedy of Errors', 'Pericles', 'Love's Labour's Lost', 'Two Noble Kinsmen'.
Histories: (1) 'Henry IV', Parts 1 and 2, 'Henry V', 'Richard II', 'Richard III', 'Henry VIII,; (2) 'King John', 'Henry VI', Parts 2 and 3, 'Henry VI', Part 1. Serious Plays, or Bitter Comedies: 'Measure for Measure', 'Troilus and Cressida'. Shakespeare’s Burial Site
Globe Theatre in London The Globe Theatre, where dramatist William Shakespeare saw his plays performed 400 years ago, has been rebuilt near its original location on the south bank of the Thames River in London, England. The rebuilt theater opened in 1997 and offers performances of Shakespeare ’ s plays during the summer. The Globe Theatre
Bach Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685- 1750), was considered by many of his peers to be the supreme master of counterpoint (compositional technique pitting note against note or melody against melody). This quality was expressly illustrated in his fugal compositions. In this excerpt from his famous Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, written in his early years as a court organist, Bach expands on the toccata (short, intricately articulated keyboard movement) form in an elaborately constructed fugue.
Homer Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the two major epics of Greek antiquity. Nothing is known of Homer as an individual, and in fact it is a matter of controversy whether a single person can be said to have written both the Iliad and the Odyssey. Linguistic and historical evidence, however, suggests that the poems were composed in the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor sometime in the 8th century.
THE ILIAD The Iliad is set in the final year of the Trojan War, fought between the Greeks and the inhabitants of the city of Troy. The legendary conflict forms the background for the central plot of the story: the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon, the young warrior Achilles withdraws from the war, leaving his fellow Greeks to suffer terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejects the Greeks' attempts at reconciliation but finally relents to some extent, allowing his companion Patroclus to lead his troops in his place. Patroclus is slain, and Achilles, filled with fury and remorse, turns his wrath against the Trojans, whose leader, Hector (son of King Priam), he kills in single combat. The poem closes as Achilles surrenders the corpse of Hector to Priam for burial, recognizing a certain kinship with the Trojan king as they both face the tragedies of mortality and bereavement..
THE ODYSSEY The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus from the Trojan War. The opening scenes depict the disorder that has arisen in Odysseus's household during his long absence: A band of suitors is living off of his wealth as they woo his wife, Penelope. The epic then tells of Odysseus's ten years of traveling, during which he has to face such dangers as the man-eating giant Polyphemus and such subtler threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him immortality if he will abandon his quest for home. The second half of the poem begins with Odysseus's arrival at his home island of Ithaca. Here, exercising infinite patience and self-control, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his servants; plots and carries out a bloody revenge on Penelope's suitors; and is reunited with his son, his wife, and his aged father.
VIRGIL, or VERGI (70-19 BC). The greatest of the Roman poets, Publius Vergilius Maro, was not a Roman by birth. His early home was on a farm in the village of Andes, near Mantua. His father was a farmer, prosperous enough to give his son the best education. The young Virgil was sent to school at Cremona and then to Milan. At the age of 17 he went to Rome to study. There he learned rhetoric and philosophy from the best teachers of the day. Mosaic of Virgil and the two muses Cleo and Melpomene
Virgil studied the Greek poets. He wrote his 'Eclogues'. These are pastoral poems describing the beauty of Italian scenes. At the suggestion of Maecenas he wrote a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of country life called the 'Georgics'. This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age. The year after the 'Georgics' was published, he began his great epic, the 'Aeneid'. He took as his hero the Trojan Aeneas, supposed to be the founder of the Roman nation. The poem, published after Virgil's death, exercised a tremendous influence upon Latin and later Christian literature, prose as well as poetry. Thus his influence continued through the Middle Ages and into modern times. This 1469 painting depicts Virgil as he drafts the poem Georgics (36-29 bc) before a statue of the Greek goddess Artemis.
DANTE (1265-1321). One of the greatest poets in the history of world literature, Italian writer Dante Alighieri composed poetry influenced by classical and Christian tradition. Dante’s greatest work was the epic poem La divina commedia (1321?; The Divine Comedy, 1802). It includes three sections: the Inferno (Hell), in which the great classical poet Virgil leads Dante on a trip through hell; the Purgatorio (Purgatory), in which Virgil leads Dante up the mountain of purification; and the Paradiso (Paradise), in which Dante travels through heaven. This passage from the Inferno (recited by an actor) comes at the beginning of the epic, when Dante loses his way in the woods. The illustration shows Dante standing in front of the mountain of Purgatory, with hell on his right and heaven on his left.
The Divine Comedy was probably begun about 1307; it was completed shortly before his death. The work is an allegorical narrative, in verse of great precision and dramatic force, of the poet's imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven. In each of the three realms the poet meets with mythological, historical, and contemporary personages. Each character is symbolic of a particular fault or virtue, either religious or political; and the punishment or rewards meted out to the characters further illustrate the larger meaning of their actions in the universal scheme. Dante is guided through hell and purgatory by Virgil, who is, to Dante, the symbol of reason. The woman Dante loved, Beatrice, whom he regards as both a manifestation and an instrument of the divine will, is his guide through paradise.
ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC). One of the greatest thinkers of all time, an ancient Greek philosopher. His work in the natural and social sciences greatly influenced virtually every area of modern thinking. Aristotle was born in 384 BC in Stagira, on the northwest coast of the Aegean Sea. His father was a friend and the physician of the king of Macedonia, and the lad spent most of his boyhood at the court. At 17, he went to Athens to study. He enrolled at the famous Academy directed by the philosopher Plato. Aristotle threw himself wholeheartedly into Plato's pursuit of truth and goodness. Plato was soon calling him the "mind of the school." In later years he renounced some of Plato's theories and went far beyond him in breadth of knowledge.
After his death, Aristotle's writings were scattered or lost. In the early Middle Ages the only works of his known in Western Europe were parts of his writings on logic. They became the basis of one of the three subjects of the medieval trivium--logic, grammar, and rhetoric. Early in the 13th century other books reached the West. Some came from Constantinople; others were brought by the Arabs to Spain. Medieval scholars translated them into Latin. The best known of Aristotle's writings that have been preserved are 'Organon' (treatises on logic); 'Rhetoric'; 'Poetics'; 'History of Animals'; 'Metaphysics'; 'De Anima' (on psychology); 'Nicomachean Ethics'; 'Politics'; and 'Constitution of Athens'.
Geoffrey Chaucer Called the Father of the English Language as well as the Morning Star of Song, Geoffrey Chaucer, after six centuries, has retained his status as one of the three or four greatest English poets. He was the first to commit to lines of universal and enduring appeal a vivid interest in nature, books, and people. As many- sided as Shakespeare, he did for English narrative what Shakespeare did for drama. If he lacks the profundity of Shakespeare, he excels in playfulness of mood and simplicity of expression. Though his language often seems quaint, he was essentially modern. Familiarity with the language and with the literature of his contemporaries persuades the most skeptical that he is nearer to the present than many writers born long after he died.
Works The following list supplies approximate dates for when Chaucer's works were completed: 'The Book of the Duchess' (1369); 'The House of Fame' (1374-84); 'The Parliament of Birds' (1374-81); 'Troilus and Criseyde' (1385); 'Canterbury Tales' (1387-1400). His last, longest, and most famous work was the 'Canterbury Tales'. His writing dominated English poetry up to the time of Shakespeare.
The Canterbury Tales The Tales is a collection of stories set within a framing story of a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral, the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket. The poet joins a band of pilgrims, vividly described in the General Prologue, who assemble at the Tabard Inn outside London for the journey to Canterbury. Ranging in status from a Knight to a humble Plowman, they are a microcosm of 14th- century English society. The Canterbury Tales contains 22 verse tales and 2 prose tales presumably told by pilgrims to pass the time on their way to visit a shrine in Canterbury, England. The tales represent nearly every variety of medieval story at its best. The special genius of Chaucer's work, however, lies in the dramatic interaction between the tales and the framing story.
LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Francois de (1613-80). Francois de La Rochefoucauld was born to one of the noble families of France on Sept. 15, 1613, in Paris. His notions of human faults and foibles grew out of a life immersed in the political crises of his time. The public life of his family was conditioned by the attitude of the monarchy toward the nobility--sometimes flattering, sometimes threatening. Having served in the army periodically from 1629 to 1646, La Rochefoucauld became one of the prominent leaders in the civil war from 1648 to 1653. Wounded in 1649 and again in 1652, he finally retired from the struggle with extensive face and throat wounds and with his health ruined.
The literary reputation of La Rochefoucauld rests on one book: 'Reflexions ou sentences et maximes morales', published in 1665. Generally called the 'Maximes', these moral reflections and maxims are a collection of cynical epigrams, or short sayings, about human nature--a nature that the author felt is dominated by self-interest. Typical of his point of view are the following sayings: "We seldom find such sensible men as those who agree with us"; "Virtues are lost in self-interest as rivers are lost in the sea"; "The surest way to be deceived is to think oneself cleverer than the others"; and "We always like those who admire us; we do not always like those whom we admire."
After convalescing, he settled in Paris where he became involved with a circle of brilliant and cultivated people who debated intellectual subjects of all kinds. As an exercise, they attempted to express their thoughts with the greatest brevity. In so doing they made great use of the epigram, or maxim, which creates surprise through the devices of exaggeration and paradox. La Rochefoucauld soon gained mastery of this device. The first edition of his 'Maximes' contains, in fact, some longer selections along with the epigrams. Altogether he authorized five editions of the book in his lifetime, the last appearing in 1678. Two years later, on March 17, 1680, he died in Paris.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one of the world’s leading research universities, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1865 the school was opened in Boston by geologist William Barton Rogers, who became its first president. Throughout its history MIT has held a worldwide reputation for teaching and research. It was among the first schools to use the laboratory method of instruction, develop the modern profession of chemical engineering, and offer courses in aeronautical and electrical engineering and applied physics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Check of Pre-class Work Students ’ Book P11 Pre-class Work IV
Disaster Be fresh out of / from A beanpole with hair on top Pharmacy: drugstore-mechanics Pill-grinding
Expose Certify that Pharmacist Engineer Lawyer Be out to do sth. / for sth. Be stuck to do new species of mechanized savage the push-button Neanderthal
new type of humans who are intellectually simple and not developed and who can only work machines
An uneducated, ignorant person who can only use / operate machines by pushing the buttons.
Check of words A. Can you describe the following action?
B. Can you use the words you just learned to fill in the blanks? a.Informally we can call an annoying person or a thing as a ___. b.We may use another word to say something is pretty enough. ___ c.Mr. Li ____ in pharmacy. d.This machine could ____ electricity in case of a power failure. e.He is ___ in a two-month course for TOFEL.
f. They lack experience because they are ___ from college. g. A person who is quite understandable of art is said to be ___. h. ___ is called the “ father of English poetry ” and one of the greatest narrative poets of England.
Text Appreciation Structure analysis Topic discussion
Structure analysis Part I (para.1 – 8) describes the writer ’ s encounter with one of his student. Part II (para. 9 – 14) restates what the writer still believes to be the purpose of a university: putting its students in touch with the best civilizations the human race has created.
Topic discussion This speech begins with an interesting incident between the professor and one of his students in the professor’s early days of teaching. Under what circumstances did the professor meet the student? What did the student look like? How did he behave? What was the course the professor offered? Was the student interested? What did he say to the professor one day? What kind of a teacher was the professor? Did he try hard to convince the student that he was wrong? Do you think the young student finally agreed with the teacher? How do you think the story ended?
Fourteen years later, the professor still sticks to his principle and never stops to try to convince the listeners. Try to find out the professor’s point of view. Why did the professor draw a line between training and education? In what way are they different? Are universities only for job training according to the professor? What else should a student strive for in a university? Why did the professor talk about how people should spend the 24 hours in a day? Do you think it was a good argument? How did the professor try to prove the importance of book- reading? How would you respond if you are the professor? Is education for living or making a living?
Word Study 1. Verbal affixes -ize/ise to cause to be; to make; to become modernize / stablize / realize / crystalize / materialize standardize / computerize / idealize / capitalize to put into stated place hospitalize / centralize / socialize -fy to cause to be purify / simplify / clarify / justify / notify / simplify / classify identify / terrify / qualify / terrify -en to become darken / weaken / blacken / sadden to be made of wooden / golden / woolen
body 1. whole physical structure of a human being or an animal; main part of a human body dead bodya strong body 2. main part of sth the body of a shipthe body of the theater the main body of the book 3. object heavenly bodiesa foreign body 4. group of people working or acting as a unit a body of troops a body of supporters a legislative body a government body the student body the governing body the school bodyan elected body 2. body / faculty / staff
Faculty 1.any of the power s of the body or mind the faculty of the sightmental faculties 2. department or group of related departments in a university the Faculty of Lawthe Faculty of Science 3. the whole teaching staff in one of the departments or in the whole university The entire faculty of the university will attend the meeting.
Staff (usu. sing) 1.group of assistants working together in a business, etc responsible to a manager or a person in authority the hotel staffthe shop staff We need more staff in the office. I have a staff of ten 2. Those people doing administrative work a head teacher and her staff ( 校长及全体教师） The school staff are expected to supervise school meals.
3. testify / justify / verify / Certify testify declare as a witness, esp in court; give evidence （提供证据，作证） Two witnesses testified against her and one in her favour. justify show that sth / sb is right, reasonable or just （表明或证明某人或某事是正当的，有理的或公正 的） You shouldn ’ t attempt to justify yourself They found it hard to justify their son ’ s giving up a secure well-paid job.
verify to check; to make sure sth is true or accurate （证实，核 查） The computer verified the data was loaded correctly. certify to declare formally, esp in writing or on a printed document （尤指书面证明） He certified it was his wife ’ s handwriting.
4. say / speak / talk / tell / converse say 其宾语通常是所说的话的内容， He hasn ’ t said that he is leaving. 或用以表达出直接引语 He said, “ Good night ”, and went to bed. speak 用途较广，可指说或说话， The baby is learning to speak. Please don ’ t speak with your mouth full of food. 还可指发言或演讲，通常是一人讲大家听 I ’ d like to speak with you about my idea. We have invited her to speak on American politics. 还可用来指会说或能够用某种语言说话。 He speaks several languages.
Talk 通常用来指两人或两人以上相互交谈，含着有 说话对象的意思, 往往只调侃或闲聊 We sat in the bar and talked for hours Tell 强调一人提供信息，其他人接受信息 She told him to hurry up. She told me nothing about herself. Converse 谈话交谈，更正式 It is a pleasure to converse with you. It is difficult to converse with people who do not speak your language.
5. rather / fairly / quite / pretty 几个副词均可以表示 “ 适度地 ” ， “ 在某种程度上 ” ，或 “ 不很 ” 意 思，常用于改变所修饰的形容词或副词的分量 rather 1. 既可与褒义词连用也可与贬义词连用。与褒义词连用时， 听起来令人心情愉悦； rather good playrather poor work 2. 与贬义词或中性词连用时，表示不赞成或不满意。 rather hotrather small 3. 可与比较级或 too 连用 The house is rather bigger than we thought. Those shoes are rather too small. 4. 与 a/an + adj. + n. 连用时，可置于 a / an 之前。 a rather nice daya rather pretty woman
fairly 词义最弱，多与褒义词连用 fairly tidy / friendly quite 和 rather 一样，在与 a/an + adj. + n. 连用时， 可置于 a / an 之前。 A quite nice guya quite promising future pretty 1. 词义最强也最通俗，但词义的强弱受语调影响较大。 A pretty simple questiona pretty ugly man 2. 和 rather 一样既可与褒义词连用也可与贬义词连用。 与褒义词连用时，听起来令人心情愉悦；
6. sensitive / sensible sensible reasonable; having or showing good sense a sensible persona sensible suggestion sensitive easily hurt, damaged, affected, offended, upset a sensitive nerveheat-sensitive a sensitive girlsensitive to criticism
Difficult Sentences 1.New as I was to the faculty, I could have told this specimen a number of things. Paraphrase Though I was a new teacher, I knew I could tell him what a university was for, but I couldn ’ t. Note specimen: a person who is unusual in some way. Here it refers to the student who challenges the teacher.
2. I could have pointed out that he had enrolled, not in a drugstore-mechanics school, but in a college and that at eh end of his course meant to reach for a scroll that read Bachelor of Science. Paraphrase I could have told him that he was now not getting training for a job in a technical school but doing a B.S. at a university. Note mean to do sth: a to intend to do sth. reach for sth. : to try to obtain sth. read Bachelor of Science: to have Bachelor of Science written on the scroll.
3. It would certify that he had specialized in pharmacy, but it would further certify that he had been exposed to some of the ideas mankind has generated within its history. Paraphrase The B.S. certificate would be an official proof that the holder had special knowledge of pharmacy, but it would also be a proof that he/ she had learned / absorbed some profound ideas of the past. Note certify that … : to state officially, especially in writing that … specialize in: to limit all or most of one ’ s study, business, etc. to a particular activity or subject. generate: to produce or create sth. They have a large body of young people who are capable of generating new ideas. This machine can generate electricity in case of a power failure.
4. That is to say, he had not entered a technical training school but a university and in universities students enroll for both training and education. Paraphrase Here the word education is used in a broad sense, not only the process of acquiring knowledge and developing skills, but also that of improving the mind. Note enroll: (BrE enrol) to arrange for yourself or somebody else to officially join a course, school, etc..
5. I could have told him all this, but it was fairly obvious he wasn ’ t going to be around long enough for it to matter. Paraphrase I didn ’ t actually say all this to him, because I didn ’ t think he would stay at college very long, so it wouldn ’ t be important whether or not he knew what university education was for. Note be around: to be present in a place; available matter (to sb): to be important or have an important effect on sb. / sth.
6. Nevertheless, I was young and I had a high sense of duty and I tried to put it this way … Paraphrase Instead of telling him the importance of an all-around education, I tried to convince him from a very practical point of view. Note put: to express or say sth. in a particular way. Can you put it in another way? I really don ’ t know how to put it. I don ’ t really hate the city. I don ’ t love it either.
7. “ For the rest of your life, ” I said, your days are going to average out to about twenty- four hours. ” Note average out to: (informal) to come to an average or ordinary level or standard, especially after being higher or lower. Meals at the university average out to about 10 yuan per day. The couple ’ s income averages out to 5,000 yuan a month. The restaurant ’ s monthly profits averaged out at 30% last year.
8. They will be a little shorter when you are in love, and a little longer when you are out of love, but the average will tend to hold. Note hold (= hold good): to be true or valid, to apply
9. For eight of these hours, more or less, you will be asleep. Note more or less: approximately. She works 12 hours a day, more or less. another meaning of the idiom: basically, essentially, almost I ’ ve more or less finished my composition. We have more or less reached an agreement on the matter.
10.… be usefully employed. Note be employed in doing sth.: (written) to spend your time doing sth. The old man ’ s days were employed in reading, writing, and doing Chinese boxing. The old lady was busily employed in knitting sweaters for her grandchildren.
11. You will see to it that the cyanide stays out of the aspirin, that the bull doesn ’ t jump the fence, or that your client doesn ’ t go to the electric chair as a result of your incompetence. Paraphrase You have to take responsibility for the work you do. If you ’ re a pharmacist, you should make sure that aspirin is not mixed with poisonous chemicals. As an engineer, you shouldn ’ t get things out of control. If you become a lawyer, you should make sure an innocent person is not sentenced to death because you lack adequate legal knowledge and skill to defend your client.
Note see to it that: to make sure that Can you see to it that all the invitations are delivered today? I ’ ll see to it that everything is ready before the guests arrive. the bull jumps the fence: to make trouble; to make out of control. go to the electric chair: to be sentenced to death; to be punished by being killed on the electric chair, that is, by passing electricity through the body
12.Along with everything else, they will probably be what puts food on your table, supports your wife, and rears your children. Paraphrase In addition to all other things (such as satisfaction) these professions offer, they provide you with a living so that you can support a family: wife and children. Note along with: in addition to sb. / sth.; in the same way as sb. / sth.
13. They will be your income, and may it always suffice. ParaphraseThose professional skills will be rewarding for your career and we hope that there may always be opportunities of further learning. Note May: in formal English, “ may ” is used to express a hope or wish May you happy new year. May you a happy holiday. May peace finally prevail. May our country be prosperous and our people happy.
14. … what do you do with those other eight hours? Note do with: (in questions with “ what ” ) to take action with regard to. What shall we do with the children when we ’ re away? What do you do with rice straw in your country? They do not know what to do with all the garbage here.
15.Will the children ever be exposed to a reasonably penetrating idea at home? Paraphrase Will your children ever hear you talk about something profound at home? Note be exposed to (usually a new idea or feeling): to be given experience of it, or introduce to it. To learn more about the world we live in, we should be exposed to different cultures. Studying abroad, he was exposed to a new way of life. reasonably: to a degree that is fairly good but not very good She wants to find a place reasonably close to her university. Our university is not one of the top ten, but reasonably well known both at home and abroad. penetrating idea: one that requires the ability of understanding clearly and deeply
16. Will you be presiding over a family that maintains some contact with the great democratic intellect? Paraphrase Will you be head of a family who brings up the kids in a democratic spirit? Note preside over: to be in charge or control a meeting or an event, here used humorously maintain contact with: to keep in touch with, here used figuratively the great democratic intellect: the level of ideas possible in a society based on the belief that all people are equal politically or socially
17. Will there be a book in the house? Paraphrase Will you be reading serious books (not just popular fiction)? 18. Will there be a painting a reasonably sensitive man can look at without shuddering? Paraphrase What kind of pictures will you put up in your house? Will you have a painting in your house that shows some taste on your part?
19. this particular pest Note pest: (informal) an annoying person or a thing 20. Me, I ’ m out to make money. Note be out to do sth. / for sth.: to be trying to get or do sth. The company is out to break into the European market. Look out for such end-of-the-year sales. These shops are out to trick you into buying what you don ’ t need.
21. “ I hope you make a lot of it, ” I told him, “ because you ’ re going to be badly stuck for something to do when you ’ re not signing checks. ” Note the sarcastic tone of the writer. In spite of what he had said, the student didn ’ t seem to be convinced. What the write meant here is something like this: If you don ’ t have any goal in life apart from making money to satisfy your desire for material riches, go ahead and make a lot of it. Note be stuck for sth: not to know what to do in a particular situation. In the middle of the speech, he was stuck for words (=he didn ’ t know how to go on). signing checks: paying for what you ’ ve bought by signing checks
22.… to put you in touch with what the best human minds have thought. Paraphrase to expose you to / make you understand the ideas, opinions and thinking of the best philosophers, scientists, writers and artists in human history.
23. If you have no time for Shakespeare, for a basic look at philosophy, for the continuity of the fine arts, for that lesson of man ’ s development we call history — then you have no business being in college. Paraphrase If you don ’ t want to improve your mind and broaden your horizon by studying a little literature, philosophy and the fine arts and history, you shouldn ’ t be studying here at college. Note that lesson of man ’ s development we call history: 我们 称之为历史的人类发展过程中有教育意义的经历； here, “ that lesson of man ’ s development ” is the object of the verb “ call ” ; “ history ” is an objective complement. lesson: an experience which acts as a warning to you or an example from which you should learn have no business doing sth. / have no business to do sth. : to have no right to do sth., shouldn ’ t have been / be doing sth. You ’ ve no business telling me what to do. He has no business criticizing her about her make-up. She has no business reading your mail.
24. You are on your way to being that new species of mechanized savage, the push-button Neanderthal. Paraphrase You will soon become an uneducated, ignorant person who can only work machines and operate mechanical equipment. Note 1. on one ’ s way to: on the point of experiencing or achieving 2. new species of mechanized savage: new types of humans who are intellectually simple and not developed and who can only work machines 3. The push-button Neanderthal: an uneducated, ignorant person who can only use / operate machines by pushing the buttons.
25. Our colleges inevitably graduate a number of such life forms, but it cannot be said that they went to college; rather the college went through them — without making contact. Paraphrase A number of such push-button savages get college degrees. We cannot help that. But even with their degrees, we can ’ t say that these people have received a proper college education. It is more accurate to say that they come through college without learning anything. Note life forms: used sarcastically, meaning these people are living creatures, but can ’ t think and reason. go through (a person) (like a dose of salts): (of food, etc.) to be quickly excreted / to pass through the body as waste matter without being digested; here, used figuratively and sarcastically
26. No one gets to be a human being unaided. Paraphrase No one can grow up to be a civilized person without the help of others. Note get to be / to do sth: to reach the point at which you are, feel, know, etc. sth. Once you get to know her better, you ’ ll realize she is compassionate at heart. His absent-mindedness is getting to be a big problem.
27.There is not time enough in a single lifetime to invent for oneself everything one needs to know in order to be a civilized human. Paraphrase To become a civilized person, you need to acquire the knowledge and develop the culture a civilized society needs. One lifetime is too short to create an environment for him to become civilized. Note a single lifetime: the time during which a person is alive. a civilized human: a person who is pleasant, charming and without roughness of manner 有素养的 人
Writing Technique Style As it is originally a talk, the writer adopts a basically colloquial and familiar style. As you read, the feel as if the professor is talking to you face to face. To recreate the scene of his encounter with the tall boy in his office, he uses the direct speech. This way, the reader can imagine the ignorance of the student. The sentence structure is generally not very complicated. But there are a few long and involved sentences in the second part of the text, for example, the last sentence in Para. 12. And the last paragraph consists of two very long ones. The tone in the first part is humorous and mildly sarcastic. The pharmacy major is referred to as “ a beanpole with hair on top ”, “ this specimen ” and “ this particular pest ”.
Style of Public Speech 1. Paralinguistic features 1) Degree of formality: higher than casual speech and unscripted commentary. 2) Degree of publicity: higher than casual speech, close to unscripted commentary. 3) Preparedness 4) Channel limitation Writing Technique
2. Linguistic features 1) Syntax A: Sentence structure B: Verb phrases C: Noun phrases D: Sentence type
2) Lexis A: Use of big words and multi-morpheme words. B: Use of uncommon words. In the first speech there are altogether 22 words that are not recorded in “ A General Service List ”, amounting to 13.6% of the total. (p. 236) C: Nominalization: Substitution of noun phrases for verbs or other kinds of phrases. Example: On my induction into the presidency. D: Use of abstract words. (p. 237) E: Use of inclusive we. 3) Rhetorical devices
Writing Technique Euphemism 委婉语 jump the fence go to the electric chair Euphemism, or “ language pollution ”, or “ double speak, ” as some call it, is often intended to obscure or hide the real situation. pass awayrest in peace go to the bathroomladies ’ room senior citizensanitary engineer correction centerdomestic help meat technologistsubstandard housing He is a bit slow for his age.
Value of College Education A girl is going to give up her chance of receiving college education in order to pursue her dream of becoming a performer. Her father is worried about her and posted a message on the internet, expecting advice from other internet surfers. Further discussion
寄件者： Steve Vaughn (firstname.lastname@example.org) Steve Vaughnslvaughn@kodak.com 主旨： Value of college education View this article only View this article only 网上论坛： rec.arts.theatre.misc rec.arts.theatre.misc 日期： 1996/07/09 I hope I am posting my question to an appropriate newsgroup. I apologize if not. My daughter is entering her senior year in high school and plans to pursue a career in theatre. She has wanted to be a performer since she was very little and is a hard working, focused person. She has received training in dance, voice, and acting both in and outside of high school. She recently informed us that a college education (degree) may not be of that much value to her career, except for the networking benefits from attending one of the top flight theatre programs. I believe her current voice and acting teacher has planted this seed. I would be very appreciative of the opinions of anyone in professional theatre regarding the importance of a college education degree for someone planning to work in this business. Her mother nor I have any experience in this field. Thanks for your help.
The following letter is from one of the internet surfers who are interested in this topic.
寄件者： Mary Beth (email@example.com) Mary Bethmsancomb@execpc.com 主旨： Re: Value of college education View this article only View this article only 网上论坛： rec.arts.theatre.misc rec.arts.theatre.misc 日期： 1996/07/10 While a degree won't help your daughter get an acting job (in that educational credentials aren't necessary, talent is), I firmly believe in the value of an education. Her schooling should help her to hone her craft, and therefore will be a plus if she is truly looking to pursue theatre as a career. Additionally, if she is a vocalist, the training she should get will be invaluable. I would suggest she look into colleges and universities with reputations for good theatre and/or music programs. Good luck to her!
Suppose you are also one of the interested internet surfers, what will you say to the father of the girl in your letter of reply?