Presentation on theme: "DIGESTIVE SYSTEM By Wesley Glanton & Rashad Walker."— Presentation transcript:
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM By Wesley Glanton & Rashad Walker
HOW IT WORKS In the human digestive system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth (oral cavity). Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components which can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The secretion of saliva helps to produce a bolus which can be swallowed in the esophagus to pass down into the stomach. Saliva starts to act on food in the mouth. Digestion is helped by the mastication of food by the teeth and also by the muscular contractions. Gastric juice in the stomach is essential for the continuation of digestion as is the production of mucus in the stomach. The rhythmic contraction of muscles that begins in the esophagus and continues along the wall of the stomach and the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This initially results in the production of chyme which when fully broken down in the small intestine is absorbed into the blood. Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. Water and some minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood, in the colon of the large intestine. The waste products of digestion are defecated from the anus via the rectum.
WHAT IT DOES The six primary processes of the digestive system include: 1.Ingestion of food 2.Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes 3.Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body 4.Digestion of food into smaller pieces 5.Absorption of nutrients 6.Excretion of wastes
ORGANS IN THE SYSTEM Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Large intestine
WHAT IT USES Mouth -Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. Inside the mouth are many accessory organs that aid in the digestion of food—the tongue, teeth, and salivary glands. Teeth chop food into small pieces, which are moistened by saliva before the tongue and other muscles push the food into the pharynx. The pharynx is responsible for the passing of masses of chewed food from the mouth to the esophagus. The esophagus carries swallowed masses of chewed food along its length, the sphincter at the end close and traps food in the stomach.
WHAT IT USES CONTINUED… Stomach -This major organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large meals properly. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth. Small intestine- The entire small intestine is coiled like a hose and the inside surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are used to maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. Liver- the main function of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine.
WHAT IT USES CONTINUED… The gallbladder is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals. Pancreas- secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods. The large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients. Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal.
WHAT IT DIGESTS Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches, and fiber found in many foods. Carbohydrates are called simple or complex, depending on their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates include sugars found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products, as well as sugars added during food processing. Complex carbohydrates are starches and fiber found in whole-grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables, and legumes. Protein. Foods such as meat, eggs, and beans consist of large molecules of protein that the body digests into smaller molecules called amino acids. The body absorbs amino acids through the small intestine into the blood, which then carries them throughout the body.
WHAT IT DIGESTS CONTINUES… Fats. Fat molecules are a rich source of energy for the body and help the body absorb vitamins. Oils, such as corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower, are examples of healthy fats. Butter, shortening, and snack foods are examples of less healthy fats. Vitamins. Scientists classify vitamins by the fluid in which they dissolve. Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. Fat- soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Each vitamin has a different role in the body’s growth and health.
BAD OUTCOMES Poor digestion leaves the body and the immune system in the same predicament that poor nutrition does – a lack of nutritional factors that support immune functioning and the function of the entire body. This is because a poor functioning digestive system has lost some of the ability to turn what’s consumed into a form the body can use. An inadequate digestive system will “steal” enzymes from the immune system to operate therefore weakening immune function. Poor digestive capability increases the body’s toxic load.
GOOD OUTCOMES Regularity. Let's start with the one you knew already. Fiber, particularly insoluble fiber, can help people prevent constipation. It bulks up stools and keeps food moving through the digestive tract. Healthy bacteria. You might have heard of probiotics -- healthy bacteria that live in your intestines. Some types of soluble fiber are considered a prebiotic -- a fuel that feeds these healthy bacteria and increases their numbers. What do these bacteria do? They boost digestive health.