The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mandates that each state provide all eligible children with a public education that meets their individual needs.
Ages 0 - 3
Vary widely from state to state Provided free of cost Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) Focus is on the overall development Services for families
Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to improve symptoms. Most professionals agree the earlier the intervention, the better. Minimize the impacts of the disability on the child.
Ages 3 through 5
Early Childhood Special Education Services are activities designed to enhance the development of the child (3-5). Focus becomes about “education”. The services are provided as needed at no cost to the family.
A child may be eligible for special services if he/she is age 3 through 5 and is experiencing difficulties which interfere with normal development in these areas: speech/language vision hearing motor skills self help skills behavioral/social skills cognition/readiness skills
◦ Comprehensive Evaluation Screening Instruments Observations Assessments Questionnaires ◦ Classification Medical vs. Educational
Key word “appropriate” Educational progress Build a partnership with the school
Type of service Amount of Time Place of service Modifications to general education environment Supports
Itinerant based (i.e., speech/language therapy) Community based preschool Special class (designed primarily for children with disabilities) Specialized day service center (DDTCS or CHMS) home based instruction hospital/residential instruction
Contact your local school district or ◦ NWAESC Early Childhood Program http://starfish.k12.ar.us http://starfish.k12.ar.us 4 N. Double Springs Rd. Farmington, AR 72730 (479) 267-5960 ◦ DDTCS Richardson Center479-443-4420 Benton County Sunshine School 479-636-3190 ◦ CHMS Kids First 479-750-0130 MiChild 479-839-3349
Early Intervention Services (Birth – 3) ◦ Richardson Center ◦ Benton County Sunshine School ◦ First Connections - Early Intervention Service Coordinators Artie Herndon (479-527-9145) Benton, Boone, Carroll, Madison, Marion, Newton, Washington Bettye Starkey (501-730-9978) Faulkner Amy Causey (479-968-5596 Arkansas Support Network Phone: (479) 927-4100 Toll Free: (800) 748-9768
“Sensory Processing Disorder is the inability to use information received through the senses in order to function smoothly in daily life.” Carol Kranowitz, The Out-of-Sync Child
Avoids Touch or Movement; May Be Rigid and Uncoordinated Unaware of Messy Face, Hands or Clothes Craves Fast Spinning and Movement Oversensitive to Lights or Sounds Is Attracted to Shiny, Spinning Objects or Bright Lights Objects to or Seeks Strong Smells or Tastes A Child’s Unusual Responses to Touching and Being Touched or Moving and Being Moved
Sensory needs must be met for the child to make sense of his environment and be available to learn. Behaviors that develop to meet sensory needs can interfere with everyday activities and social interaction.
Child controls movement Movement is done to child Heavy Work Riding on a tricycle Pumping a swing Little Tykes-style car Movement Riding in a wagon Pushed on a swing Remote control car
Sensory diet ◦ Plan activities throughout the day to regulate the child climbing, jumping (mini trampoline), obstacle course, dancing, outside play, swinging important to prepare for times when child needs to be sitting or has been in a car for an extended time it’s not a pill that makes the need for activity go away- it is like being hungry in that you eat but then you are hungry again just as important for underactive as overactive children
Over-responsive to noise- ◦ try child earphones Difficulty sitting for activities- ◦ weighted lap pad ◦ use a rocking chair or hoppity ball Seems unaware of where he is in space- ◦ try putting a pound of rice or beans in his backpack (He carries, not you!) ◦ use deep pressure when you hug or interact with the child ◦ try massage to bring body awareness
Use your child’s strengths
Many children (and adults) learn best when they can see as well as hear Auditory processing difficulties are very common in children with autism For children who are resistant to verbal directions, it directs the child without a power struggle (It’s hard to be angry at a picture!)
Visual Schedules ◦ for daily activities such as going to school, eating dinner, taking a bath, etc. ◦ for specific activities like washing hands Timers ◦ for staying with an activity ◦ for waiting for activities or taking turns
If/Then Book ◦ shows your child what will happen if they complete an activity (wash your hands, then snack) ◦ helps to teach the important concept of work, then play Stop signs ◦ shows your child what is off limits
Core deficit areas for children with autism
Receptive LanguageExpressive Language Points to “cat” when asked Follows directions Understands big/little Answers questions by pointing Names “cat” Asks for a drink “Big car” Answers questions verbally
Following Directions ◦ Give prompts, then fade. Full physical prompt Partial physical prompt Visual prompt Independent
Play “dumb” ◦ try not to anticipate wants and needs ◦ give the wrong item or act like you don’t know what is wanted Place favorite items in sight but out of reach of child ◦ put favorite items in containers that are difficult to open ◦ if nonverbal, use pictures or photographs for child to use to request (Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS)
Challenge with questions ◦ “Why do you want to go outside?” “ What are you going to do outside?” ◦ increases interaction time Teach answering questions ◦ ask question, then give choices, giving most likely first (“What do you want to eat? Do you want crackers or broccoli?”) ◦ ask question, pause, then ask again and give the answer (“Who is coming home soon? Who is coming home soon? Daddy is!”)
Be playfully obstructive ◦ if child lines up cars, drive a car away or crash into the cars ◦ if child drives train around and around the track, use your hand to block the progress and wait for a response ◦ challenge, but make it fun! Sit face to face and draw attention to your eyes ◦ place toys up to your eyes ◦ put toys on your head
Work in pairs ◦ have a sibling or another adult sit behind your child to help with rolling a ball or pushing a car back and forth Work on imitation skills ◦ imitate what your child does ◦ fingerplays and movement songs are great for teaching imitation Be animated, excited; woo your child
The Child With Special Needs by Stanley Greenspan and Serena Wieder Engaging Autism by Stanley Greenspan and Serena Wieder The Out-of-Sync Child by Carol Stock Kranowitz www.do2learn.com (free black and white pictures) www.do2learn.com www.mayer-johnson.com (Boardmaker, Download Free Trial) www.mayer-johnson.com www.pecs.com (picture exchange communication system) www.pecs.com www.abilitations.com for swings, weighted lap belts and other sensory equipment www.abilitations.com