3 CRITICAL LIFELONG SKILLS To tolerate people and value interactions.To communicate intentionally and effectively.To organize information and learn meanings/purposes.To tolerate change and accept new experiences.To be independent of constant verbal direction.To self-monitor and manage stress/emotion.To identify sensory triggers and self- regulate in in an appropriate manner.
4 Differentiating between Behaviorism and Cognitive Behaviorism Focuses on the end point of the behavior performed or exhibited.COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORISMFocuses on the thinking that contributes to the behavior, and then describes how your behavior should change.
5 Social Cognition vs. Social Skills Both are needed! Behavioral SocialCommunication SkillsVerbal (pragmatics)Conversation, greetingsSocial scriptsNarrative skillsNon-verbalInterpreting & usingfacial expressions, eye contactbody language, tone of voiceJoint attentionOther social behaviorsExpected/unexpected behaviorfor different contextsMannersSharing, turn-takingAppropriate physical spaceCognitive SocialCommunication SkillsTheory of MindPerspective takingTracking what others know/thinkSelf-monitoringUnderstanding social situationsCentral CoherenceProcessing information as a wholeRelating pieces of info back tolarger patterns thought/behaviorExecutive FunctionFlexible thinkingSocial problem-solvingCreating organizational structuresPrioritizingEmotional regulation
6 Four Steps of Communication to Become a Social Thinker 1) Think about people and what they think and feel. 2) Be aware of your physical presence as well as the physical presence of others. 3) Use your eyes to think about others and what they are thinking about. 4) Use your language to relate to others. USE YOUR BRAIN, EYES, BODY AND WORDS TO MAKE CONNECTIONS!Thinking About You Thinking About Me, Michelle Garcia Winner
7 What do students with social cognitive and self-regulation deficits need? 1) Direct instruction to prevent social mishaps & meltdowns.2) Direct instruction and problem-solving to learn from social mishaps & meltdowns after they occur.3) Opportunities to practice with typically developing peers in different environments.CoachingReinforcement4) Incorporation and use of social thinking and self-regulation vocabulary across contexts.
9 Assessing Baseline Skills and Monitoring Progress 1) Checklists/rating scales2) Observation in natural settingsJust see what happensCan set-up a situation to probe for specific skill3) Observation in small, unstructured groupsCan do this the first time the group meetsVideo record if possible4) Teacher and/or parent interviews5) Student interview6) Student self-report
10 Other Resources for Assessment Building Social Relationships by Scott BelliniThinking About You Thinking About Me by Michelle Garcia WinnerJill Kuzma’s SLP Social & Emotional Skill Sharing Site:-of-pragmatics-and-social-language/Other social skills curricula have assessment tools that align with lessons
11 SOCIAL INSTRUCTION: WHAT TO TEACH AND WAYS TO TEACH IT
12 Methods for Social Instruction The following methods can be utilized to create a personalized social skills instruction program or to supplement commercially-available social skills curricula.1) TALKING/DISCUSSION2) WORKSHEETS3) CONCRETE/VISUAL SUPPORTSSocial Behavior Maps5 Point Scale, Problem thermometerFriendship Peer-a-midConversation TreeSocial StoriesGraphic organizers, strategy listsPhysical items that represent abstract concepts
13 4) SPEECH AND THOUGHT BUBBLES Comic strip scenarios (drawings or photos)Over your headPicture books/magazines/flashcards/paused video image5) STORIES/BOOKSPicture books – fiction and non-fictionChapter books – fiction and non-fictionScenarios6) VIDEOCommercially-made social skills videosYou-tubeMovie and cartoon clipsMake your ownRole playRecord students for self-evaluationWatch typical peers
14 8) ROLE PLAY/SIMULATION (with or without scripts) 7) TECHNOLOGYInteractive softwareiPad applicationsPower Point presentations, Smart Boards8) ROLE PLAY/SIMULATION (with or without scripts)9) GROUP ACTIVITIES/TASKSCooperative or competitiveTheater games10) NATURALISTIC OPPORTUNTIES FOR PRACTICEPlay with toysGamesConversationParty or snackIncidental planning or problem-solving“Field trip” or practice in a natural environment
15 Key Concepts to Teach and Reinforce 1) Ready/not ready2) People have different kinds of smarts3) How to be part of a group4) Eyes are important – yours and others’5) Expected behavior leads to good/green thoughts. Unexpected behavior leads to uncomfortable/red thoughts.6) Our bodies and faces send messages(non-verbal communication)7) Social thinking is flexible thinking8) Problems and feelings come in different sizes
16 9) People store and recall information about each other (social files) 10) Conversation is made up of questionsand thoughts11) There are different levels of relationshipbetween people12) Make a plan:Solving problemsSelf-regulation (emotions and alertness)Completing tasksMaking schedules, managing timeSelf –advocacy, asking for helpOrganizing environmentBeing social
17 STARTING POINT: SELF-REGULATION KEY CONCEPTS:Ready/not readyProblems and feelings come in different sizesMake a plan
18 Three critical neurological components need to be integrated: Self-RegulationThree critical neurological components need to be integrated:1) Executive Functioning: conscious control of thoughts and actions (attention shifting, workingmemory, internalizingspeech, flexible thinking,planning actionsand inhibition)
19 2) Sensory Processing: how you make sense of the information around you and how you organize and integrate that info to act on it.
20 3) Controlling Emotions: monitoring, evaluating and modifying the intensity and timing of your emotional response (determining the size of the problem, motivation, and perspective- taking)
21 Self-Regulation Strategies and Lessons 1) “READY OR NOT READY?”The purpose in asking this is to determine whether the student is regulated and ready to make a plan. This need to be paired with a motoric activity.Example: “I know you’re ready when (your hands are in your lap, you sit in the chair, etc.)Ready/Not Ready script video: notready.html
22 2)“BIG DEAL, LITTLE DEAL?” Big/Little Deal script video: deal.html3) “HARD OR EASY?”If it’s hard, they need to be taught how to get help.Hard/Easy script video: ef_hard-easy.html4) “LET’S MAKE A PLAN”The purpose is for the student to identify and verbally and/or visually rehearse the steps of what they are supposed to do (try to keep it to 3 steps)
23 Executive Function: Types of Plans to Teach Plans to transitionPlans to complete workPlans to ask for helpPlans for routines, multi-step tasksPlans to calm down when you are worried, scared or angryPlans to regulate level of alertnessPlans to solve problemsPlans to interact with othersPlans for achieving a goal
24 Goal: somethingyou think aboutAction Plan:sequence ofsteps youphysicallyhave to do
25 Other Ways to Incorporate Executive Function Practice and Instruction Model plan-making by posting or discussing agendaModel problem-solving by thinking out loud when problems occurAssign a group project or task with multiple stepsPlan an event/party together
26 Students have social notebooks where they keep their visuals, worksheets and other materials for groupHave students bring their school notebooks to group and discuss their organizational systemsBreak down and prioritize real & hypothetical goalsAcademic tasksSocial/life goalsDiscuss traits of good, average and poor students
27 Sensory Self-Regulation Resource: How Does Your Engine Run?, Therapy Works
28 Resource: Take 5! Staying Alert at Home and School, Therapy Works
29 Emotional Self-Regulation and Problem-Solving Resource: Kimochis
31 For younger children, teach that the size of their reaction must match the size of the problem. As youth get older, teach that sometimes they must compress their feelings until they are in private or with family/close friends.
36 TAKING CONTROL OF MYSELF What I thinkTAKING CONTROL OF MYSELFWhat I do How I feelCONTROLLING MY THOUGHTSDistract my brainAbsorbing ActivitiesCoping/Positive Self-TalkThought StoppingTurn Volume Down on negative thoughtsThrow Away / Lock Up negative thoughtsCONTROLLING MY BODY & FEELINGSPhysical RelaxationPhysical ExerciseControlled BreathingCalming Pictures / VisualizationRelaxing ActivityCONTROLLING MY BEHAVIORSTOPPLANGOResource: Think Good-Feel Good by Paul Stallard
38 Suggested Resources for Self-Regulation EXECUTIVE FUNCTION:Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents (Peg Dawson & Richard Guare)Planning to Learn (Keely Harper-Hill & Stephanie Lord)SENSORY:The Alert Program: How Does Your Engine Run? and Take 5! (Mary Sue Williams & Sherry Shellenberger)Arnie and his School Tools (Jennifer Veenenhall)EMOTIONAL CONTROL:The Incredible 5 Point Scale and A 5 Could Make Me Lose Control (Kari Dunn Buron)A 5 Could Make Me Lose Control (Kari DuThe Zones of Regulation (Leah M. Kuypers)Think Good – Feel Good (Paul Stallard)
39 SOCIAL INSTRUCTION: OTHER STRATEGIES, ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES
40 RESOURCE: Think Social by Michelle Garcia Winner
41 CONCEPT: People have different kinds of “smarts” Some “smarts” are smarter than other ones. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses, but we can get better at what is hard for us if we work at it!In social group, we are going to work on improving our “social smarts.”
42 RESOURCE:You Are a SocialDetective byMichelle GarciaWinner
47 RESOURCE: You are a Social Detective by Michelle G. Winner
48 RESOURCE: Whole Body Listening Larry at School by Elizabeth Sautter
49 by Michelle Garcia Winner. How to Join a GroupDon’t “pounce.” Use the “slow approach” 1) Move your body into the group. 2) Look at people in the group. Do their faces and bodies welcome you? 3) Listen to what they are talking about. 4) Add thoughts and questions that relate to what someone else is saying.Adapted from Social Thinking Worksheets for Tween and Teensby Michelle Garcia Winner.
50 Group Games and Activities Songs and games that require imitationCircle time songsSimon SaysBoard and card gamesGames/activities that involve cooperation or a shared group goalResources:Social Skills Games for Children and Anger Management Games for Children (Deborah M. Plummer)
51 CONCEPT: Eyes are important- yours and other people’s People think about what they look at.People do not necessarily see what you see (different perspective).If you think with your eyes, you can make smart guesses about:1) Thoughts/feelings of others2) What someone might do next(figuring out their plan)3) How to behave in a situation
52 RESOURCE: You are a Social Detective by Michelle G. Winner
53 Other StrategiesHave children practice identifying what you are looking at and what you are thinking about.When reading books, watching videos, or using scenario/facial expression flashcards, emphasize characters’ eyes and what they are looking at/thinking about.For young children, use a puppet, doll, or special interest toy to help them attend to the eyes and follow its’ line of sight.Don’t call on students or say their names. Tell them you will look at them when it is their turn to talk.
54 CONCEPT: Our bodies and faces send messages If we look at people’s face and bodies, and we listen not only to the words they say, but how they say it, then we can make a smart guess about what they are thinking and feeling, and what they mightdo next.People look at our faces and bodies to make smart guesses about us too.
55 Using pictures (books, flashcards, etc Using pictures (books, flashcards, etc.) or paused video, students identify what someone is thinking or feeling by reading body language.
56 CONCEPT: People have thoughts about Expected and Unexpected Behavior Every environment has a set of rules that people expect to be followed. When we follow the rules, we are being expected. When we do not follow the rules, we are being unexpected.When you are expected, people have good thoughts about you (green thoughts). When you are unexpected, people have uncomfortable thoughts about you (red thoughts).If someone has a red thought about you, you can change their thought by changing your behavior.
58 Provide visual/concrete feedback to let individual students or the whole group know what kind of thoughts you are having about them based on their behavior:Red/green popsicle sticksRed/green pointsPaperclips (that form a chain of expected behavior)
60 RESOURCE: Jill Kuzma’s SLP Social and Emotional Skill Sharing Site
61 RESOURCE: Social Skills Picture Book by Jed Baker Right Way(Expected)Wrong Way(Unexpected)
62 RESOURCE: Social Skills Picture Book for High School and Beyond by Jed BakerRight Way(Expected)Wrong Way(Unexpected)
63 Comic Strips/Cartooning Comic Strip Conversations use the graphics of stick figures, talking bubbles, and thinking bubbles to interpret social situations/interactions and take the perspective of others.Can be used to pre-teach concepts or analyze a social mishap after it has occurred.
65 Teach hidden rules Resource: The Hidden Curriculum by Brenda Smith MylesResource:Jill Kuzma’sWebsite-SocialSecrets
66 RESOURCE:A 5 is Against theLaw by Kari DunnBuron
67 RESOURCE: Video Modeling DVDs Model Me KidsFitting in and Having Fun
68 CONCEPT: Social thinking is flexible thinking That means:Doing something you don’t want toStopping something you want to keep doingAccepting changeTrying something new, doing something a different wayListening to other people’s thoughts and trying their ideasTHINKING ABOUT OTHERS
69 STRATEGIESCooperative games/tasks that require group members to try others’ ideas.Role play flexible and inflexible thinking scenarios (can make a video).Demonstrate flexible thoughts whencartooning or making comic strips.Point out and reinforce flexible thinking when you see it.
71 CONCEPT: Social files (a.k.a. “people” or “friend” files) We keep information we learn about people in a “social file” in our brains, which helps us:1) Have a conversation about something they like.2) Do something they like.3) Show interest in them.4) Make decisions based on how we think they will react.5) Help us interpret motives and intentions of people.
72 Games “Get to know you” activities Commercially-available party games (younger children)Commercially-available party games
73 Other Strategies Students interview each other. Each group member makes a collage of images that represent facts about themselves.Create Venn diagrams or other graphic organizers to notice differences and find commonalities.Make concrete social files on each other using actual file folders. Stick post-its with facts about the person in the file.
74 CONCEPT: Conversation is made up of questions and thoughts
75 Conversation TreeConcept from Thinking About You Thinking About Me,Michelle G. Winner
76 CONCEPT: There are different levels of relationships between people
77 Concept adapted from Michelle Garcia Winner, Social Thinking®
79 STRATEGY/ACTIVITY: Use movie and TV clips as a platform for discussing relationships, non-verbal communication, the nuances of social situations, and other topics.EXAMPLES:Big Bang Theory/watch?v=k0xgjUhEG3UNapoleon Dynamite
81 Considerations When Forming Groups Age, maturity levelShared areas of interestRelationships between members(friends, negative influences on each other, enemies, bully/target)Same teacher, similar schedules, other scheduling concernsShared social goals and objectivesPerspective-taking and social thinking ability
82 When to Teach One-on-One Student needs more intensive or more individualized instructionYou have attempted to include the student in a group, but he/she took too much time and energy to manageStudent is resistant to being part of a group and impedes group learningThe ultimate goal is to work them back into a groupIf schedule does not allow for one-on-one, pair two resistant social communicators togetherREMEMBER: A “group” can consist of one adult and one student. The student is still required to think about another person and be social.
83 Using Typical PeersTypical peers can be utilized in instructional social groups or other programs such as Circle of Friends, Lunch Bunch, etc.Typical peers can be other students in special education (who do not have behavior problems and a higher level of skill in social communication)Typical peers are helpful for:Modeling expected behavior and explaining conceptsGrounding and calming the groupHelping with generalization outside of groupSharing successes (observations of student outside of group)Encouraging resistant communicators to participate and understand how their negative behavior affects othersNOTE: The dynamic between typical peers and social group members can change as they get older
84 Curriculum and Lesson Planning Beneficial for teacher and students to have a clear intent for the social group.Based on information from assessments and students’ IEPs, teacher must determine:broad goals for the groupskills that need to be taughthow to teach those skills (lessons and activities)general sequence of lessons, short-term and/or long-term
86 Structure of a 30-minute lesson 1) Review schedule and Check-inStudents identify how they are feeling(5 Point Scale)Discuss personal problems/solutions(or plan to follow-up later, if needed)2) Review of last time, accountability for “homework”3) Lesson/Activity4) Reinforcement/Fun (5 minutes)
87 Building in Reinforcement 1) Use last 5 minutes for snack, special interest activity, etc.Could be earned contingent on group or individual behaviorORRegular part of schedule; if the group is off- task, they cut into their fun time (natural consequence)2) Group earns points, stars, “green sticks,” etc., that build up to a future party or fun activity (to do during social group time)
88 Ways to Promote Generalization Communicate with parents, teachers and other school staff about concepts taughtCoaching/prompting in other school contextsAdultsTypical peers from social groupCo-teachTeach social lessons to an entire classSet weekly social goals, challenges, or “homework” for students, with accountability and reinforcement for completionProblem-solve and role-play situations from students’ real livesVideo-record student in other contexts and have them self-evaluateCreate opportunities for practice in other contexts
89 Components of Meaningful Social Groups Both social cognition and social skills are addressedBehavioral expectations are explicit and taughtOpportunities to practiceA variety of teaching modalities are utilizedConcrete/visual supports are used to help students latch onto abstract conceptsStudents feel safe, trust one anotherInstructor is creative and flexibleFun and laughter!