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How to RTI: Creating the Systems and Structures of Response to Intervention Prepared by Liz Angoff, PhD Response to Intervention Coordinator Oakland Unified.

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Presentation on theme: "How to RTI: Creating the Systems and Structures of Response to Intervention Prepared by Liz Angoff, PhD Response to Intervention Coordinator Oakland Unified."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to RTI: Creating the Systems and Structures of Response to Intervention Prepared by Liz Angoff, PhD Response to Intervention Coordinator Oakland Unified School District elizabeth.angoff@ousd.k12.ca.us elizabeth.angoff@ousd.k12.ca.us

2 There is no way a single teacher has all the time, all the knowledge, and all the skills to meet all the needs of every child in his or her class(es). Buffman, Mattos, & Webber 2009 As a community we do and we can. June 2011Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

3 Step 1  Understanding RTI June 2011Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

4 Who are my students? What do they need to learn? – What do they like? What are their talents? What skills are they coming in with? – What don’t they like? What is difficult for them? What skills are they lacking? What have they forgotten over the summer? Why are some struggling? What other skills do they need to learn? – Even with the best curriculum and the best teacher, some students will struggle. – Often, students struggle predictably: we know some students will need repetition, different presentations, or certain skill reinforcement. – Some student present more complex puzzles – we will need to dig deeper to learn how to help them. Did it work? Is there another way to teach them? – We keep track of student progress to determine if our extra help helped them. – If the student still struggles, we get more information and we try again. The right response begins with the right questions June 2011Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

5 Response to Intervention is a systematic, intentional way of asking these questions. June 2011Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

6 The RTI Framework RTI is thought of as a 3-tiered system of intervention: – Tier 1 (>80%): what we do for all students within the core classroom – Tier 2 (<15%): what we do for some students who need additional supports to be successful in school or the community – Tier 3 (<5%): what we do for individual students who need specific supports to be successful in school or the community When students need additional support beyond Tier 3, Special Education may be considered This framework may be applied to academic, behavioral or other community needs June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District >80% <15% <5%

7 The RTI Framework Tiers of support, or intervention, build on each other – Students with higher needs still need the supports within the classroom – Tiers 2 and 3 are not “place” to “send” students but rather ways of increasing and specializing support based on student needs Most of our current research on intervention focuses on reading and behavior; other areas are emerging Our end goal is student success within the classroom, supporting as many students as possible through Tier 1 instruction and intervention June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

8 The RTI Framework Tier 1 may look like: – Screening measures for all students – Professional Learning Communities analyzing student learning – Workshop time to target specific skill needs in small groups June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

9 The RTI Framework Tier 2 may look like: – Diagnostic assessment to determine specific skill needs – Coordination of Services or Student Study Team to design appropriate supports for a student – Smaller groups and more time focused on a specific skill June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

10 The RTI Framework Tier 3 may look like: – Additional diagnostic assessment and consultation with a specialist to determine individual student needs – Student Study Team meeting to ensure all student needs are being addressed – Even smaller group and even more time focused on specific skill needs June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

11 The RTI Pyramid TIER 1 Who are our students? What do they need to learn? TIER 2 Why are some still struggling? What other skills do they need? Did it work? Progress Monitoring TIER 3 Intensify ! Now what do we do? Problem Solving June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

12 Response to Intervention (RTI) is a data-driven, multi- tiered approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavioral needs. The RTI process begins with high-quality instruction, universal screening and discrete data analysis of all children in the general education classroom. Struggling learners are provided with interventions at increasing levels of intensity, specific to their skill needs, in order to accelerate their rate of learning. When students continue to struggle despite interventions, a team of educators come together in a problem solving process to identify the specific needs of the most at-risk students. RTI is not a program but a process: a way to identify who is at-risk and, more importantly, why. What is RTI? A formal definition June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

13 Step 2  Understanding RTI  Identifying what we already have June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

14 Use what you have To get what you want You likely have many of the “RTI” elements in place already; connecting the dots and systematizing these elements is key to creating successful intervention systems. To identify your site’s strengths and needs, choose one of the following: Use this presentation to assess your site’s current capacity for: – Data: Screening, Diagnostic and Progress Monitoring systems – Problem solving: PLCs, COST and SST – Intervention: Core and More Use the RTI Rubric at www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI under Library of Linkswww.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI Use a more formal inventory such as the Self Assessment of Problem solving Implementation (SAPSI) from www.floridarti.usf.eduwww.floridarti.usf.edu June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

15 Step 3  Understanding RTI  Identifying what we already have  Creating systems June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

16 The Big 3 Response to Intervention can be thought of as having three main components:  DATA is the driving force behind RTI. The tools we use to assess and monitor student learning must tell us not only who is struggling, but why.  PROBLEM SOLVING is a collaborative process to determine how to improve learning for the whole classroom, small groups with similar difficulties, and individual students.  INTERVENTION refers to the action taken when a students is not learning for any reason. The intervention should be research-verified and specifically address the skill need of the student, with the goal of helping them to successfully access the general classroom and curriculum. June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

17 Data Systems Universal Screening Diagnostic Assessment Progress Monitoring June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

18 Collecting Useful Data Why CST and Benchmark scores are not enough We collect data on our students constantly through formal and informal measures – all of these forms of data are important for understanding who our students are and how they are changing throughout the year State tests (CST) provide summative information once each year – they can tell us who is struggling, but not why Benchmark scores provide summative information at regular intervals based on broad standards – success or failure on a given standard may be due to a number of factors; we still don’t know why a student struggles June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

19 Collecting Useful Data Painting a whole picture To be truly responsive, we need to know more about what students can and cannot do. These measures help us identify their specific skill needs. Universal Screening:Universal Screening: A general measure given to all students targeting basic skills in an academic area or behavior. These assessments are quick and easily administered. They are often described as “taking a temperature”. These are different that CST or Benchmark tests because they address specific underlying skills. Diagnostic Assessment:Diagnostic Assessment: A targeted measure given to some students to identify a specific skill deficit. The results of these assessments may be linked directly to targeted interventions. Progress Monitoring:Progress Monitoring: A quick measure given to students receiving intervention designed to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction and determine if students are learning the intended skill. June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

20 Collecting Useful Data Examples of Measures Academic (Reading) Universal Screening – DIBELS – AIMSweb – CORE Literacy Library Diagnostic Assessment – CORE Phonics Survey or BPST – Qualitative Reading Inventory – Diagnostic Reading Assessment Progress Monitoring – DIBELS – AIMSweb – Easycbm.com Behavior Universal Screening – Student Risk Screening Scale – Discipline referrals or other behavioral data kept on all students Diagnostic Assessment – Please ask your School Psychologist or Mental Health professional for diagnostic measures in this area Progress Monitoring – Goal-focused daily/weekly contracts – Check-in, check-out systems – Regular observations June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

21 Problem Solving Systems Professional Learning Communities Coordination of Services Team Student Study Team June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

22 Problem Solving As a community we can Problem Solving teams exist at every tier: for all students, for small groups of students with similar difficulties, and for individual students needing specialized support. These teams identify who is not learning and ask: – Why are they not learning? – What do they need to learn? – How can we best help them to learn it? June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

23 Problem Solving Tier 1: Professional Learning Communities A PLC is a group of educators committed to working collaboratively in ongoing processes of collective inquiry and action research in order to achieve better results for the students they serve. (Richard and Rebecca DuFour). PLCs emphasize student learning, closely examining student data and performance to determine who is responding to instruction and strategically intervene when students are not responding. A PLC looks at learning for ALL students and examines how to maximize student learning in the classroom using Tier 1 intervention. For more information and resources: www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI under the Problem Solving tabwww.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

24 Problem Solving T iers 2 & 3: Coordination of Services Team COST is a team of school support staff, along with the principal, that meets regularly to review referrals for struggling students. Referrals are then handed over to the appropriate support staff member such as the intervention teacher, nurse or psychologist for intervention. This team often focuses on many students at once and may organize a single intervention for common difficulties (Tier 2 intervention). The COST keeps track of the effectiveness of the interventions which is then communicated to the teachers, parent, or other provider. For more information on COST: www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI - under the Problem Solving tabwww.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

25 Problem Solving Tiers 2 & 3: Student Success Team An SST is a school site team that includes the parents, student, teachers and principal, as well as any other needed support staff The SST focuses on one student and his or her development as a successful student and community member The results of an SST may include referral to a Tier 2 intervention or a more individualized, Tier 3 intervention SSTs serve as one way to document data on a student’s skill development over time; action items may include progress monitoring of one of the specific areas of concern June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

26 Intervention Systems Core + More June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

27 Intervention What do we do about it? Interventions must be: Research-verified and implemented with fidelity Implemented by a trained staff member Aligned with specific skill needs of the student Monitored over time Flexible and responsive Interventions should be: Part of Core instruction and regular classroom practice Focused on student need, not on assigning students to a specific “tier” – tiers may look different in different schools June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

28 Intervention Helpful systems and structures Master schedules create a guaranteed time for intervention to ensure all students have access Flexible groupings mean that students are able enter and exit interventions depending on their progress; for example, one school has an intervention class that changes every 6 weeks based on progress monitoring data Staff professional development around identifying the need and providing intervention for commonly seen difficulties is critical to building capacity for supporting all students Professional Learning Communities and other problem solving teams allow for data-based decision making that helps us separate the lack of will from the lack of skill: students struggle to keep up with classroom work for many reasons – a student who is struggling because they are not engaged is different from the student who is struggling because they lack a specific skill June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

29 Interventions Will vs Skill The intervention must match the need: academic failure and behavioral difficulties are symptoms; we need to figure out the cause – Screening, diagnostic and progress monitoring measures help us identify specific skills students have or do not have – Problem solving teams help us determine the larger context of the learner and the learning environment If there is a lack of skill, we must intervene in a way that helps the student learn that skill If there is a lack of will, we must intervene in a way that helps the student become more motivated to learn June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

30 Intervention What doesn’t work Common current interventions: – Up to each teacher – Summer school – Remedial classes – Special Education – Retention – Detention – Nothing These are not effective when: – They are not matched to a specific skill – The student progress is not monitored – The student is isolated from regular instruction – There is no plan to change the way we teach June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

31 Intervention What does work We know a lot about how learning breaks down, especially in the area of reading; therefore, we can predict and prepare for where we will have to intervene, even within the Core program Research-verified interventions help us be specific about our goals; the more specific the goal, the more likely the progress Guaranteed access for all students to interventions as needed, and guaranteed exit from interventions as students progress June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

32 Intervention What does work Visit the OUSD RTI website for a continually expanding list of intervention resources: www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI Florida Center for Reading Research: www.fcrr.orgwww.fcrr.org CORE Literacy Library: www.corelearn.comwww.corelearn.com Words Their Way: www.pearsonhighered.comwww.pearsonhighered.com SIPPS: Systematic Instruction in Phoneme Awareness, Phonics and Sightwords: www.devstu.org www.devstu.org June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

33 Step 4  Understanding RTI  Identifying what we already have  Creating systems  Continue to evaluate practices and systems for fidelity and effectiveness June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

34 Ongoing Evaluation Experience tells us that RTI takes about 3-5 years to implement completely Set S.M.A.R.T. goals and examine them regularly during PLC, Leadership Team or other staff meeting time Be patient – even the best “best practice” will need tweaking to truly meet the needs of your community June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

35 Just Do It You can start RTI’ing today Use data meetings, PLCs and/or SST to determine the CAUSE of the difficulty Connect specific difficulty with appropriate intervention – look at supplementary materials to core curriculum, community resources, support staff Ensure the student will have access to that intervention Monitor student’s response to that intervention Be specific and patient: success in one area does not guarantee success in all areas June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

36 1.OUSD RTI Website: www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTIwww.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI 2.National Center on Response to Intervention: www.rti4success.org www.rti4success.org 3.Curriculum Based Measurements for screening and progress monitoring: www.easycbm.comwww.easycbm.com 4.Intervention Central to create your own progress monitoring: www.interventioncentral.com www.interventioncentral.com 5.DIBELS screening and progress monitoring tools: www.dibels.uoregon.edu www.dibels.uoregon.edu Additional Resources June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District

37 Contact Information Liz Angoff, PhD School Psychologist, RTI Liaison Programs for Exceptional Children Marcus Foster Site 2850 West Street Oakland, CA 94608 elizabeth.angoff@ousd.k12.ca.us (510) 874-3755 www.ousd.k12.ca.us/RTI June 2011 Liz Angoff, PhD, Oakland Unified School District


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