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Frog Dissection. Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish.

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Presentation on theme: "Frog Dissection. Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Frog Dissection

2

3 Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

4 Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p

5 AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTICS Moist, thin skin without scales Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult Feet without claws Respiration with gills, lungs, skin, mouth Closed 2 loop circulation Ectothermic (cold blooded) Eggs without shells or multicellular membranes

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7 FROG LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” AMPHIBIA “double life” ANURA “without a tail”

8 Thin, moist skin – no scales Mucous glands make it “slimy” Camouflage- for protection Some have poison glands

9 BREATHING THROUGH SKIN is called CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION

10 ECTOTHERMIC “cold blooded” Body temperature is dependent on surrounding environment

11 HIBERNATION/ ESTIVATION Images from: FAT stored in FAT BODIES provides energy

12 Nictitating membrane image from:

13 NO CLAWS image from:

14 EXIT OPENINGS DIGESTIVE WASTE (feces) = _________________ Shared EXCRETORY & REPRODUCTIVE EXIT = _____________________________ (Urine & eggs or Urine & sperm) ANUS UROGENITAL PORE

15 EXIT OPENINGS OPENING SHARED BY EXCRETORY, REPRODUCTIVE, & DIGESTIVE = ______________ VENT

16 What sex is it? Images from:

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18 AMPLEXUS “firm embrace” Sperm and egg same time and place Increases chances of fertilization

19 TONGUE attached at front not back like yours! Imagse from:

20 image from: Muscular Back of throat Pulls food into digestive system

21 image from: Connect ears to back of throat

22 image from: GLOTTIS Opening to respiratory GULLET Opening to digestive

23 Images from:

24 Image from; Laboratory/frog%20dissection/frog%20dissection_files/frame.htm

25 Females may have black & white eggs Image from; Laboratory/frog%20dissection/frog%20dissection_files/frame.htm

26 Pericardial membrane around heart Mesentery holds intestines together image from:

27 Mesentery holds intestines together image from:

28 FAT BODIES Store fat for energy during Hibernation Estivation Breeding Image from:

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31 PYLORIC SPHINCTER CONTROLS passage of food from stomach into duodenum (intestine)

32 Gall Bladder Image from:

33 STOMACH: LIVER: GALL BLADDER Make acid and digestive enzymes Start digestion (grind up food) Make bile Store glycogen Store vitamins Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys Store bile

34 PANCREAS

35 Pancreas (enlarged)

36 PANCREAS: Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN- breaks down proteins INSULIN- tells cells to store glucose from bloodstream as glycogen GLUCAGON- tells cells to release stored glucose to blood stream

37 SPLEEN Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones

38 SMALL INTESTINE DUODENUM Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion ILEUM Absorbs nutrients VILLI Increase surface area

39 LARGE INTESTINE Removes water from digestive waste; concentrates feces

40 10 Body Systems : ___________________ Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms: ___________ __________ _____________ MOST TOXIC made from LEAST TOXIC ammonia by needs the least liver water to dilute FISH HUMANS BIRDS, REPTILES AMPHIBIANS EXCRETORY AMMONIAUREA URIC ACID

41 ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! DIGESTIVE waste- left over from undigested food travels through digestive system leaves through digestive system as feces EXCRETORY waste- (Also called NITROGEN WASTE) made by cells from break down of proteins travels through blood stream leaves through excretory system as ammonia, urea, or uric acid

42 Diagram by: Riedell

43 Image from: KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation

44 URINARY BLADDER STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult frogs excrete UREA to conserve water

45 CLOACA DIGESTIVE EXCRETORY REPRODUCTIVE

46 LUNGS: GAS EXCHANGE

47 BREATHING WITH LUNGS is called PULMONARY RESPIRATION

48 Larvae breathe with GILLS

49 OVARIES Make eggs Image from:

50 Carry eggs to cloaca Add jelly coating

51 TESTES MAKE SPERM

52 TESTES KIDNEY

53 AMPLEXUS “firm embrace”

54 INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT Grow legs; Lose tail 2 chambers  3 chambers 1 loop  2 loops Breathe w/ gills  lungs & skin Excrete ammonia  excrete urea (gills & kidneys) (kidneys)

55 Ways tadpoles are like fish Have a LATERAL LINE Breathe with gills Excrete nitrogen waste as AMMONIA (with gills & kidneys) Have a 2 chamber heart Have a 1 loop circulatory system

56 HEART 3 chambered heart Right atrium Left atrium Ventricle Image from:

57 Images from: ADULT FROG: 3 chamber heart 2 loop system TADPOLES & FISH: 2 chambered heart 1 loop system

58 MOST vertebrates have nuclei in their RBC’s RBCs’ image from: Human RBC image from: MAMMALS DON’T

59 Sinus venosus Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus    BODY organs   GILLS  FISH CIRCULATION

60 Sinus venosus RIGHT Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION

61 Sinus venosus RIGHT Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION

62 BRAIN


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