4 Natural Habitat = Africa SudanZaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo)Ebola-ZaireSudanEbola-SudanGabonIvory CoastEbola-Cote d’IvoireUgandaRepublic of the Congo (not the DRC)Ivory CoastUgandaGabonCongoDRC
5 Natural Reservoir Suspected to be a zoonotic (animal-borne) However, it is unknown what organism carries it naturally without being infectedSuspected vectorsBatsPrimates (in some cases, have been confirmed)Basically any other animal native to Africa, including mosquitoes, ticks, birds, reptiles
6 No benefits Uses: Possible terror weapon (no uses) Never normal flora in humans (it really sucks)
7 Ebola hemorrhagic fever TransmissionEbola-Reston has shown to be airborneThe other three strains are transmitted by contact of any kind (fluids or skin)Target GroupsAnyone who comes in contact with an infected animal or person is at high risk of contacting the disease.However, some people seem to have natural defenses in their immune system that allow their bodies to kill the virus. Scientists do not know exactly how this occurs.
8 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Target Organs and Damage MethodsTarget mainly small capillary vessels. Attach to walls, cause leakage of blood and serum into surrounding tissue.When white blood cells attack the virus, they dissolve – this releases a chemical into the blood stream that signals the release of other chemicals (pro-inflammatory cytokines, pro-coagulants, and anticoagulants)These injure blood vessels even worse, resulting in permanent bleeding.Eventually, the entire body is leaking and dissolving
9 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Incubation Period: Anywhere from 2-21 daysAs it progresses:Severe vomitingAbdominal painDiarrheaPharyngitisConjunctivitisExternal bleedingExtremely high body temperatureProstrationSymptoms:Severe headacheWeaknessMuscle aches
10 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Fatality Rates:Ebola-Sudan – 60%Ebola-Zaire – 77-88%Ebola-Reston – Found in monkeys, has not shown to be fatal in humansEbola-Cote D’Ivoire – Only one human case recorded, patient survivedNot much is known about the body’s response because of the dangers of handling samples from infected patients and the short time span available for investigation.MASS GRAVES FOR EBOLA VICTIMS
11 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Diagnosis and IdentificationClinical Diagnosis:-Difficult because early symptoms (red eye, skin rash) are nonspecific to virus.-Takes a combination of many symptoms characteristic of Ebola.Laboratory Testing/Diagnosis:-Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-IgM ELISA test-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – a DNA test to match the DNA from the sample to known Ebola DNA-All done within a few days of onset of symptoms
12 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Diagnosis ContinuedAdvanced Stage Testing:-Test for IgM and IgG anitbodiesRetrospective Testing:-Immunohistochemistry testing-Virus isolation-PCR(Occur after death)CultureOnly grows in cells
13 Ebola hemorrhagic fever THERE IS NO CURE FOR EBOLA HFCare of Infected Persons:-Supportive therapy -Maintain oxygen status, BP-Balance fluids and electrolytes -Treatment of complicating infectionsExperimental Treatment:-In the Kikwit outbreak in DRC, doctors transmitted blood from survivors to sufferers, hoping to transmit whatever antibodies helped them survive.It is unknown whether or not survivors gain immunity from infection. Doctors believe it is possible, but because of the limited ability to test this theory, it remains to be seen.
14 Ebola hemorrhagic fever PreventionClassified as Biosafety level 4 (greatest threat to humans)Extensive precautions taken when dealing with suspected cases to limit transmissionSeveral layers of protective clothing covering entire body (up to four)Complete equipment sterilizationQuarantine of Ebola HF patients
15 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Future outlookA study released in December of 2003 showed that researchers studying infected monkeys have found a way to increase survival rates100% of infected monkeys had been dyingThese were injected with rNAPc2, a factor known to inhibit blood coagulation, a characteristic of Ebola HF33% of these monkeys survived and regained health. All untreated monkeys died.rNAPc2 is known to be relatively safe in humans – this method is being studied further
16 Sources“Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever.” Special Pathogens Branch: Diseases. Nov. 26, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 3/19/04 <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola.htm>Murphy, Frederick A. “Ebola Virus.” Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2002Russell, Brett. Ebola Information. 3/19/04 <http://www.brettrussell.com/personal/ebola.html>Col. Weeks, Byron, M.D. “Ebola – A Serious Threat.” NewsMax.com. Oct. 17, /19/04 <http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/12/82239.shtml>