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Neutrino Astroparticle Physics Lutz Köpke University of Mainz, Germany July 8, 2005 XXV Physics in Collision.

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Presentation on theme: "Neutrino Astroparticle Physics Lutz Köpke University of Mainz, Germany July 8, 2005 XXV Physics in Collision."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neutrino Astroparticle Physics Lutz Köpke University of Mainz, Germany July 8, 2005 XXV Physics in Collision

2 Physics in collisions? eV 50 GeV 1.4 TeV 40 TeV 1400 TeV actually not... fixed target physics: center of mass energy neutrino energy atmospheric neutrinos GZK: p+  CMB  n+    X+...limits exist all the way up to eV probe physics beyond LHC

3 Physics motivation  origin and acceleration of cosmic rays  understand cosmic cataclysms  find new kind of objects?  neutrino properties ( , cross sections..)  dark matter (neutralino annihilation) tests of relativitiy.... search for big bang relics... effects of extra dimension etc.... pp   ± + X  e, .... p    + + X  e, .... Beam dump:... astrophysics and particle physics

4 Particle propagation in the Universe gammas ( MLy) Protons/nuclei: deviated by magnetic fields, reactions with radiation (CMB) protons E>10 19 eV (30 MLy) protons E<10 19 eV neutrinos Cosmic accelerator Katz Photons: absorbed on dust and radiation

5 Neutrino source candidates Active Galaxy (optically dense, e.g. FRII) Black hole with 10 8 x mass of sun  10 6 Ly extra-galactic Supernova remnant Microquasar (SS433 etc.) Crab nebula Black hole with  mass of sun  1 Ly galactic

6 WB bound MPR bound  Mannheim, Protheroe and Rachen (2000)  Waxman, Bahcall (1999) derive generic limits from  limits on extragalactic p‘s   -ray flux log [E 2 · flux(E  ) / GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ] atmospheric log (E /GeV) 67 AGN core (SS) AGN Jet (MPR) GRB (WB) GZK Required sensitivity many specific models for non-resolved sources for discovering extraterrestrial neutrinos TeV PeV EeV

7 Can it be done ? Reaction probability [H 2 O, d=1km]: W=N A  d   E[TeV]... sources millions to billions light years away...  Needs huge detectors making use of natural media  Require high energies  Need to detect all flavors Haim-Harrari: neutrino physics is the art to learn a lot from nothing.... Extended source with e :  :  =1:2:0 production (e.g.   decay) : for  23  45°,  13  0° : e :  :  =1:1:1 on earth

8 Principle detection methods radio, acoustics, particles... moon, ice, salt mountain... detectors (earth based, balloon/satellite) extremely high energies (E>10 18 eV)high energies (E> eV) grid of light sensors for Cherenkov radiation

9 Single photon detection... information: timing and amplitude of photons - position of PMTs IceCube …typically 300 MHz digitization

10 Detection of , e,  O(km) long muon tracks direction determination by Cherenkov light timing  15 m  O(10) x less background for e – but you don’t profit from long  -range  Regeneration of  - no absorption in earth even at very high energies ! Electromagnetic and hadronic cascades ~ 5 m

11 The neutrino telescope world map Antares Nemo Nestor Amanda/IceCube Baikal KM3Net?

12 Importance of complete sky coverage South Pole (ice) AMANDA, ICECUBE galactic center in middle Mediterranean (ocean) Antares, Nestor, 1 km  coverage for e,  ! Need earth as shielding agains cosmic rays for  (if E   < 100 TeV)

13 Importance of large energy coverage Neutrino flavor Log(ENERGY/eV) e e   supernovae Full flavor ID Showers vs tracks IceCube flavor ID, direction, energy IceCube triggered, partial reconstruction TeV PeV

14 Importance of low background Nestor cosmic ray muons IceCube  Detector noise: low in inert ice (1 kHz/PMT)   : x dominated by cosmic ray muons  need low misreconstruction  e : background much lower (but smaller detection volume)  scattering helps...

15 Importance of good angular resolution Expected  resolution for 1 km 3 detectors Ice water...can‘t compete with  -telescopes..but for many analyses not crucial atmospheric size of moon

16 Price and ease of construction Ice IceCube: M$273 (US accounting)  50 M$ detector cost moon... use existing moon …and radio antennas water KM3Net: < 200 MEUR

17 Northern hemisphere detectors 1100 m deep data taking since 1998 new: 3 distant strings AntaresNestor under construction 2400 m deep completion: early of 12 floors deployed 4000 m deep completion: 2007? Baikal NT200 NESTOR Astrop. Phys. 23, 377 (2005)

18 BAIKAL NT200+ Excellent example that smart ideas can compensate small size and budget data taking since external strings in operation since April 05  sensitivity quadrupled … concentrate on induced showers

19 m 40 km submarine cable Antares ~ 40 km string based detector, 0.01 km 3 instrumented volume  prototype strings 2003, March 2005  1st „final“ string mid 2005  detector completion early 2007

20 Antares test string detectors moving with currents….  acoustic positioning < 10 cm (2mm for fixed distance) string based detector, 0.01 km 3 instrumented volume  1st „final“ string mid 2005  detector completion early 2007

21 AMANDA and IceCube Optical module (677)  1500 atmospheric ‘s /year collaborations merged March  atmospheric ‘s /year IceTop 1400 m 2400 m 1 km 3 IceCube 0 m > 70 strings > 4200 modules 0.02 km 3 AMANDA

22 South Pole Station IceCube Counting HouseFirst IceCube string 1400m 2400m 1500 m 2000 m AMANDA [not to scale] the South-Pole laboratory

23 The new station operating at least until 2035

24 January 2005: 60 optical modules Deepest module at 2450 m First IceCube string...

25 IceTop – IceCube IceCube coincident events.. Amanda – IceCube

26 The testbeams 1 TeV 1000 TeV E μ  E -3.8 E primär  E Primary energy corrected Energy spectrum with unfolding technique atmospheric neutrinos 1 GeV 1 TeV Amanda Frejus E ν  E -3.8 E Hadrfon  E -2.7  0.02 Preliminary cosmic ray muons

27 Atmospheric neutrinos... IceCube will be abundant source of atmospheric neutrinos: AMANDA (5y)  10000, 70 between TeV IceCube (5y)  , 2000 between TeV e.g. study of equivalence principle, velocity induced oscillations: 2 orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity

28 Neutrinos from unresolved sources Preliminary  (2000 data) cascades (2000 data) Expect deviation at high energy (hard flux)

29 Very high energies Special analysis for very high energies above 1000 TeV....  large energy deposits (bremsstrahlung)  Earth starts absorbing  70 TeV: interaction length = earth diameter AMANDA reach (5y): cm -2 s-1 sr -1 90% energy range: GeV

30 GZK log [E 2 · flux(E  ) / GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ] FREJUS MACRO atmospheric log (E /GeV) 67 BAIKAL AMANDA limits DUMAND test string IceCube (3y) Experimental bounds and future ..closing in on Waxman-Bahcall bound  gain factor 30 in sensitivity with 1 km 3 detectors present AMANDA sensitivity --- Preliminary

31  also search for neutrinos from unresolved sourcesalso search for neutrinos from unresolved sources (807 days) 3329  from northern hemisphere 3438  expected from atmospheric  Maximum significance 3.4  compatible w. atmospheric  Search for localized sources (AMANDA) quite expected... 92% of experiments would yield even higher maximum Preliminary

32 neutrino induced muon flux /(cm 2 s) declination (degrees) Macro Baksan IMB 2012 KM3NetIceCube 2007 Antares+Nestor AII+IceCube... measured limits and future Super-K Amanda

33 optimized for E -2, (*) E -2, 3 signal 1997 : ApJ 583, 1040 (2003) 2000 : PRL 92, (2004) : PRD (2005) IceCube: Astrop Phys 20, 507 (2004) *  lim  0.68·10 -8 cm -2 s -1 average flux upper limit [cm -2 s -1 ] sin  AMANDA-B10 AMANDA-II IceCube 1/2 year * Preliminary... steady progress in sensitivity time >10 GeV

34 ... closing in on predictions Distefano integrated neutrino flux /(cm 2 s) [E>1 GeV]  predictions very model dependent ... some can be tested now.. e.g. SS-433 micro quasar: preliminary SS-433

35 Additional studies  Search for excess in galactic plane  Search for neutrino clusters (sliding time window)  coincidence with enhanced EM emision x-ray, radio and  -ray)  curosity: 1 neutrino candidate close to orphan peak (no radio signal)...no statistically significant effects need multiwavelength campaigns! Error bars: off-source background per 40 days May '02 July '02June '02 sliding search window

36 GRB n search in AMANDA Search for  candiates correlated with GRBs - background established from data  effective area  m 2 (  )  limit assumíng WB spectrum: E ν 2 Φ ν < 3 x GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (  ) < 9.5x10 -8 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (cascades)  No coincident events observed observed!  :  <20° PRELIMINARY Cascade channel: worse pointing but 4  !

37 Green’s Function Fluence Limit (allows for comparison with SK) SuperKamiokande (1454) AMANDA sensitivity AMANDA limit Further investigations...  Search without temporal/spacial constr.: E ν 2 Φ ν < 6.7x GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1  detailed investigations of GRB large model dependencies !! PRELIMINARY Future goal : determination of limits independent of specific model

38 Indirect search for dark matter  neutralino is best particle physics candidate for dark matter  stable if R-parity conserved (for most parameters)  Nuclear Recoil and indirect searches are complementary and not equivalent !!  can self-annihilate (Majorana particle) and produce neutrinos  gravitationally trapped in center of earth, sun or center of galaxy e.g.:  +   b + b c +  - +  ; W + W -

39 Disfavored by direct search (CDMS II) Limits on muon flux from Earth center WIMP search in AMANDA AMANDA results submitted for publication Limits on muon flux from Sun 1km 3 (IceCube) AMANDA 1y Antares 3 years SK

40 e.g magnetic monopoles: Cherenkov-light  ( n·g/e) 2 (1.33*137/2)  = v/c upper limit (cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ) KGF Soudan Baikal Amanda 1 km 3  electrons MACRO Orito New particles 8300 times stronger than for  ! high sensitivity to rare new particles if signature unambigous (slowly) moving bright particles...

41 The (near) future  complete construction of 1 km 3 IceCube detector 2010 can already work with incomplete detector …  complete construction of smaller mediterranean detectors 2007?  decide on location/design of 1km 3 mediterranean detector 2006?  Complete construction of KM3Net? 2012?  new ideas for detection of extremely high energy neutrinos....  extend the search to higher energies with even bigger detectors

42 IceCube: 11/ /2010 Up to 18 holes per season: Nov.: preparation Dec.: construction Jan.: construction Feb.: commissioning 35% of money spent...

43 Signatures in IceCube … signature of  signature of  eV (10 TeV)6x10 15 eV (6 PeV)Multi-PeV   +N  +...  ± (300 m track!)   +hadrons

44 1 km 3 array in Mediterranean  Extensive exploration and R&D (NEMO)  efforts of all groups (Antares, Nestor, Nemo) being joined to form single collaboration EU-funded design study (10 M€ requested) on list of proposed large EU-projects (ESFRI) problems mainly „political“ (site e.g.) new technological develoments multianode PMTs with Winston cones).... but time scale tight design report 2008 construction ?

45 Anita - quest for GZK neutrinos refracted radio Antarctic ice neutrino  surveys > 1 million km 2  under construction  launch Dec 2006

46 Preliminary!... very rare - very high energy events many proposals for radio and acoustic detectors in ice, water, salt, from moon.. e.g. IceCube extension: >>km attenuation length sparse instrumentation 100-fold volume increase >100 > 10 GZK neutrinos/year IceCube

47 RICE AGASA Amanda, Baikal AUGER  Anita 0.1 km 3 later km 3 satellites radio Glue

48 Summary  plenty of results (limits) closing in on predictions …  1 km 3 IceCube  construction started 30 times efffective area  mediterranean detectors under construction taskforce for 1 km 3 detector  innovative concepts for even larger detectors..no extraterrestrial neutrinos found yet...but:

49 SS Crab Nebula Cygnus X Cygnus X ES Markarian 421 Flux Upper Limit  90% (E >10 GeV) [10 -8 cm -2 s -1 ] Expected backgr. (4 years) Nr. of n events (4 years) Source selected objects → no statistically significant effect observed … out of 33 Sources Systematic uncertainties under investigation Crab Nebula : MC probability for excess 64% Sensitivity  /   ~2 for 200 days of “high-state” (HEGRA)... Limits on selected sources

50 Galactic center  for a E -2  spectrum  with quality selection and BG suppression (atm  reduction by ~10 6 ) Median angular reconstruction uncertainty ~ 0.8  further improvement expected using waveform info IceCube Effective Area and Angular Resolution for Muons Energy resolution:  [log 10 (E  )]  20%- 30%

51 neutrino induced muon flux /(cm 2 s) declination (degrees) Macro Amanda Super-K Baksan IMB KM3NeTIceCube Antares+Nestor AII+IceCube GX SS-433 MK501 /  ~1

52 Cygnus-X1 Sun Cassiopeia. A Approximate AMANDA horizon light years SMC LMC Crab Nebula


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