Presentation on theme: "Neutrino Astroparticle Physics Lutz Köpke University of Mainz, Germany July 8, 2005 XXV Physics in Collision."— Presentation transcript:
Neutrino Astroparticle Physics Lutz Köpke University of Mainz, Germany July 8, 2005 XXV Physics in Collision
Physics in collisions? eV 50 GeV 1.4 TeV 40 TeV 1400 TeV actually not... fixed target physics: center of mass energy neutrino energy atmospheric neutrinos GZK: p+ CMB n+ X+...limits exist all the way up to eV probe physics beyond LHC
Physics motivation origin and acceleration of cosmic rays understand cosmic cataclysms find new kind of objects? neutrino properties ( , cross sections..) dark matter (neutralino annihilation) tests of relativitiy.... search for big bang relics... effects of extra dimension etc.... pp ± + X e, .... p + + X e, .... Beam dump:... astrophysics and particle physics
Particle propagation in the Universe gammas ( MLy) Protons/nuclei: deviated by magnetic fields, reactions with radiation (CMB) protons E>10 19 eV (30 MLy) protons E<10 19 eV neutrinos Cosmic accelerator Katz Photons: absorbed on dust and radiation
Neutrino source candidates Active Galaxy (optically dense, e.g. FRII) Black hole with 10 8 x mass of sun 10 6 Ly extra-galactic Supernova remnant Microquasar (SS433 etc.) Crab nebula Black hole with mass of sun 1 Ly galactic
WB bound MPR bound Mannheim, Protheroe and Rachen (2000) Waxman, Bahcall (1999) derive generic limits from limits on extragalactic p‘s -ray flux log [E 2 · flux(E ) / GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ] atmospheric log (E /GeV) 67 AGN core (SS) AGN Jet (MPR) GRB (WB) GZK Required sensitivity many specific models for non-resolved sources for discovering extraterrestrial neutrinos TeV PeV EeV
Can it be done ? Reaction probability [H 2 O, d=1km]: W=N A d E[TeV]... sources millions to billions light years away... Needs huge detectors making use of natural media Require high energies Need to detect all flavors Haim-Harrari: neutrino physics is the art to learn a lot from nothing.... Extended source with e : : =1:2:0 production (e.g. decay) : for 23 45°, 13 0° : e : : =1:1:1 on earth
Principle detection methods radio, acoustics, particles... moon, ice, salt mountain... detectors (earth based, balloon/satellite) extremely high energies (E>10 18 eV)high energies (E> eV) grid of light sensors for Cherenkov radiation
Single photon detection... information: timing and amplitude of photons - position of PMTs IceCube …typically 300 MHz digitization
Detection of , e, O(km) long muon tracks direction determination by Cherenkov light timing 15 m O(10) x less background for e – but you don’t profit from long -range Regeneration of - no absorption in earth even at very high energies ! Electromagnetic and hadronic cascades ~ 5 m
The neutrino telescope world map Antares Nemo Nestor Amanda/IceCube Baikal KM3Net?
Importance of complete sky coverage South Pole (ice) AMANDA, ICECUBE galactic center in middle Mediterranean (ocean) Antares, Nestor, 1 km coverage for e, ! Need earth as shielding agains cosmic rays for (if E < 100 TeV)
Importance of large energy coverage Neutrino flavor Log(ENERGY/eV) e e supernovae Full flavor ID Showers vs tracks IceCube flavor ID, direction, energy IceCube triggered, partial reconstruction TeV PeV
Importance of low background Nestor cosmic ray muons IceCube Detector noise: low in inert ice (1 kHz/PMT) : x dominated by cosmic ray muons need low misreconstruction e : background much lower (but smaller detection volume) scattering helps...
Importance of good angular resolution Expected resolution for 1 km 3 detectors Ice water...can‘t compete with -telescopes..but for many analyses not crucial atmospheric size of moon
Price and ease of construction Ice IceCube: M$273 (US accounting) 50 M$ detector cost moon... use existing moon …and radio antennas water KM3Net: < 200 MEUR
Northern hemisphere detectors 1100 m deep data taking since 1998 new: 3 distant strings AntaresNestor under construction 2400 m deep completion: early of 12 floors deployed 4000 m deep completion: 2007? Baikal NT200 NESTOR Astrop. Phys. 23, 377 (2005)
BAIKAL NT200+ Excellent example that smart ideas can compensate small size and budget data taking since external strings in operation since April 05 sensitivity quadrupled … concentrate on induced showers
m 40 km submarine cable Antares ~ 40 km string based detector, 0.01 km 3 instrumented volume prototype strings 2003, March 2005 1st „final“ string mid 2005 detector completion early 2007
Antares test string detectors moving with currents…. acoustic positioning < 10 cm (2mm for fixed distance) string based detector, 0.01 km 3 instrumented volume 1st „final“ string mid 2005 detector completion early 2007
AMANDA and IceCube Optical module (677) 1500 atmospheric ‘s /year collaborations merged March atmospheric ‘s /year IceTop 1400 m 2400 m 1 km 3 IceCube 0 m > 70 strings > 4200 modules 0.02 km 3 AMANDA
South Pole Station IceCube Counting HouseFirst IceCube string 1400m 2400m 1500 m 2000 m AMANDA [not to scale] the South-Pole laboratory
The new station operating at least until 2035
January 2005: 60 optical modules Deepest module at 2450 m First IceCube string...
The testbeams 1 TeV 1000 TeV E μ E -3.8 E primär E Primary energy corrected Energy spectrum with unfolding technique atmospheric neutrinos 1 GeV 1 TeV Amanda Frejus E ν E -3.8 E Hadrfon E -2.7 0.02 Preliminary cosmic ray muons
Atmospheric neutrinos... IceCube will be abundant source of atmospheric neutrinos: AMANDA (5y) 10000, 70 between TeV IceCube (5y) , 2000 between TeV e.g. study of equivalence principle, velocity induced oscillations: 2 orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity
Neutrinos from unresolved sources Preliminary (2000 data) cascades (2000 data) Expect deviation at high energy (hard flux)
Very high energies Special analysis for very high energies above 1000 TeV.... large energy deposits (bremsstrahlung) Earth starts absorbing 70 TeV: interaction length = earth diameter AMANDA reach (5y): cm -2 s-1 sr -1 90% energy range: GeV
GZK log [E 2 · flux(E ) / GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ] FREJUS MACRO atmospheric log (E /GeV) 67 BAIKAL AMANDA limits DUMAND test string IceCube (3y) Experimental bounds and future ..closing in on Waxman-Bahcall bound gain factor 30 in sensitivity with 1 km 3 detectors present AMANDA sensitivity --- Preliminary
also search for neutrinos from unresolved sourcesalso search for neutrinos from unresolved sources (807 days) 3329 from northern hemisphere 3438 expected from atmospheric Maximum significance 3.4 compatible w. atmospheric Search for localized sources (AMANDA) quite expected... 92% of experiments would yield even higher maximum Preliminary
optimized for E -2, (*) E -2, 3 signal 1997 : ApJ 583, 1040 (2003) 2000 : PRL 92, (2004) : PRD (2005) IceCube: Astrop Phys 20, 507 (2004) * lim 0.68·10 -8 cm -2 s -1 average flux upper limit [cm -2 s -1 ] sin AMANDA-B10 AMANDA-II IceCube 1/2 year * Preliminary... steady progress in sensitivity time >10 GeV
... closing in on predictions Distefano integrated neutrino flux /(cm 2 s) [E>1 GeV] predictions very model dependent ... some can be tested now.. e.g. SS-433 micro quasar: preliminary SS-433
Additional studies Search for excess in galactic plane Search for neutrino clusters (sliding time window) coincidence with enhanced EM emision x-ray, radio and -ray) curosity: 1 neutrino candidate close to orphan peak (no radio signal)...no statistically significant effects need multiwavelength campaigns! Error bars: off-source background per 40 days May '02 July '02June '02 sliding search window
GRB n search in AMANDA Search for candiates correlated with GRBs - background established from data effective area m 2 ( ) limit assumíng WB spectrum: E ν 2 Φ ν < 3 x GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ( ) < 9.5x10 -8 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (cascades) No coincident events observed observed! : <20° PRELIMINARY Cascade channel: worse pointing but 4 !
Green’s Function Fluence Limit (allows for comparison with SK) SuperKamiokande (1454) AMANDA sensitivity AMANDA limit Further investigations... Search without temporal/spacial constr.: E ν 2 Φ ν < 6.7x GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 detailed investigations of GRB large model dependencies !! PRELIMINARY Future goal : determination of limits independent of specific model
Indirect search for dark matter neutralino is best particle physics candidate for dark matter stable if R-parity conserved (for most parameters) Nuclear Recoil and indirect searches are complementary and not equivalent !! can self-annihilate (Majorana particle) and produce neutrinos gravitationally trapped in center of earth, sun or center of galaxy e.g.: + b + b c + - + ; W + W -
Disfavored by direct search (CDMS II) Limits on muon flux from Earth center WIMP search in AMANDA AMANDA results submitted for publication Limits on muon flux from Sun 1km 3 (IceCube) AMANDA 1y Antares 3 years SK
e.g magnetic monopoles: Cherenkov-light ( n·g/e) 2 (1.33*137/2) = v/c upper limit (cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ) KGF Soudan Baikal Amanda 1 km 3 electrons MACRO Orito New particles 8300 times stronger than for ! high sensitivity to rare new particles if signature unambigous (slowly) moving bright particles...
The (near) future complete construction of 1 km 3 IceCube detector 2010 can already work with incomplete detector … complete construction of smaller mediterranean detectors 2007? decide on location/design of 1km 3 mediterranean detector 2006? Complete construction of KM3Net? 2012? new ideas for detection of extremely high energy neutrinos.... extend the search to higher energies with even bigger detectors
IceCube: 11/ /2010 Up to 18 holes per season: Nov.: preparation Dec.: construction Jan.: construction Feb.: commissioning 35% of money spent...
Signatures in IceCube … signature of signature of eV (10 TeV)6x10 15 eV (6 PeV)Multi-PeV +N +... ± (300 m track!) +hadrons
1 km 3 array in Mediterranean Extensive exploration and R&D (NEMO) efforts of all groups (Antares, Nestor, Nemo) being joined to form single collaboration EU-funded design study (10 M€ requested) on list of proposed large EU-projects (ESFRI) problems mainly „political“ (site e.g.) new technological develoments multianode PMTs with Winston cones).... but time scale tight design report 2008 construction ?
Anita - quest for GZK neutrinos refracted radio Antarctic ice neutrino surveys > 1 million km 2 under construction launch Dec 2006
Preliminary!... very rare - very high energy events many proposals for radio and acoustic detectors in ice, water, salt, from moon.. e.g. IceCube extension: >>km attenuation length sparse instrumentation 100-fold volume increase >100 > 10 GZK neutrinos/year IceCube
RICE AGASA Amanda, Baikal AUGER Anita 0.1 km 3 later km 3 satellites radio Glue
Summary plenty of results (limits) closing in on predictions … 1 km 3 IceCube construction started 30 times efffective area mediterranean detectors under construction taskforce for 1 km 3 detector innovative concepts for even larger detectors..no extraterrestrial neutrinos found yet...but:
SS Crab Nebula Cygnus X Cygnus X ES Markarian 421 Flux Upper Limit 90% (E >10 GeV) [10 -8 cm -2 s -1 ] Expected backgr. (4 years) Nr. of n events (4 years) Source selected objects → no statistically significant effect observed … out of 33 Sources Systematic uncertainties under investigation Crab Nebula : MC probability for excess 64% Sensitivity / ~2 for 200 days of “high-state” (HEGRA)... Limits on selected sources
Galactic center for a E -2 spectrum with quality selection and BG suppression (atm reduction by ~10 6 ) Median angular reconstruction uncertainty ~ 0.8 further improvement expected using waveform info IceCube Effective Area and Angular Resolution for Muons Energy resolution: [log 10 (E )] 20%- 30%