Presentation on theme: "Next Generation Adaptive Optics - Solar System Science Cases - F. Marchis (UC-Berkeley) Members: A. Bouchez (Caltech), J. Emery (NASA-Ames), K. Noll (STSCI),"— Presentation transcript:
Next Generation Adaptive Optics - Solar System Science Cases - F. Marchis (UC-Berkeley) Members: A. Bouchez (Caltech), J. Emery (NASA-Ames), K. Noll (STSCI), M. Adamkovics (UC-Berkeley) SSC meeting - June , Hawaii, USA
General introduction AO expands the study of our solar system –Good temporal monitoring to observe variable phenomena (atmosphere and surface) –Short time scale to respond to transit and unpredictable events (impact of a comet on Jupiter) Keck Observatory and planetary science significant contributions and dynamic sub-field. Since 2000: –32% of Keck referee papers. –42% of all Keck press releases –NASA (1/6 partner of Keck Obs) supports investigations mostly in Planetary science
Science Cases A few science cases were chosen to illustrate the advanced capabilities of NGAO (with simulations) A. Binary Minor Planets –Detection and orbits of asteroidal satellites –Spectroscopy of moonlets –Size and shape B. Satellites of Giant Planets –Titan’s surface and its atmosphere –Io’s volcanism
Minor Planets Building blocks of the Solar System linked to its formation ~400,000 minor planets known Small apparent size ( largest 1 Ceres, D app =0.7arcsec “seeing” limit) Main-Belt L4-Trojan L5-Trojan Centaurs TNOs
Diversity of shapes and sizes Itokawa “ Like archaeologists working to translate stone carvings left behind by ancient civilizations, the collisional and dynamical clues left behind in or derived from the Main Belt, once properly interpreted, can be used to read the history of the inner Solar System. ” Bottke et al 2005
What are asteroids made of? (a) Shape of NEA * Toutatis observed with radar Internal structure? (b) Monolith (c) Contact Binary (d) Rubble Pile From E. Asphaug, 1999, “Survival of the weakest” * NEA= Near Earth Asteroid
Binary Asteroids A Family Portrait ~85 multiple asteroidal systems known Astronomical prize for astronomers and theorists Mass, density, constraints on formation of planets MB - Ida and Dactyl (Galileo 1993) MB 87 Sylvia and its 2 moons (VLT AO, 2005) MB -45 Eugenia & Petit-Prince (CFHT AO, 1998) TNOs 2003EL61 (Keck AO, 2005)
Multiple asteroidal systems and NGAO + better angular resolution in visible (~15 mas) -> close doublet (sep. < 50 mas) can be also studied + a better sensitivity as well… Keck NGS SR~40%, mv<13.5 Keck LGS SR<20%, mv<17.5 Keck NGAO SR>70%, mv<17.5 Percent of observable binary systems <20%~70% Size ratio of smallest satellite at 0.6” 1/40-1/50~1/10-1/30~1/70-1/90 Considering 80 known multiple asteroidal systems:
NGAO capabilities Simulation context: 87 Sylvia was discovered in 2005: R primary = 143 km, R Remus = 3.5 km, R Romulus =9 km Insert 2 more moonlets. One closer (6 km) at 480 km and one smaller (1.75 km) at 1050 km Triple system 87 Sylvia with VLT/NACO Pseudo-Sylvia simulated
Simulations Simulation of pseudo- Sylvia observed with various AO systems 1.6” Better sensitivity Detection of fainter moonlet & closer moonlets More multiple systems Better photometry Better estimate of the size and shape of moonlet Better astrometry Reliable estimate of orbital parameters, small orders perturbations (e.g., precession, interactions between moonlets, …)
Trans-Neptunian Object satellite systems Most large TNOs may have multi-satellite systems, which record their formation and/or collisional history EL61: A Charon-sized (~1500 km) TNO with 2 satellites in non-coplanar orbits (Brown et al. 2006). Keck 2 LGS-AO NGAO simulations 2003 EL61 at 51 AU Identical system at 100 AU (mv=20), observed using an off-axis V=16.5 NGS. & 50” separation Hypothetical 3rd moon, 75 km diameter. K band -2” K band -1” K band -2” An NGAO survey of large TNOs would find all satellites >100 km diameter out to 100 AU.
Low resolution spectroscopy Better AO correction higher SN on spectra of moons and primary (capture body, infant of primary, age, …) Visible wavelength range characterize the surface composition Silicate absorption bands centered at 1 and 2 m
Summary Science case A Keck NGAO will be the best tool for this scientific subject (no space mission scheduled, need for numerous observations,…) Density & composition of minor planet is the key to understanding the formation of the solar system
Science Cases A few science cases were chosen to illustrate the advanced capabilities of NGAO (with simulations) A. Binary Minor Planets –Detection and Orbits of asteroidal satellites –Spectroscopy of moonlets –Size and shape B. Satellites of Giant Planets –Titan’s surface and its atmosphere –Io’s Volcanism
Volcanism of Io The most volcanically active place in the solar system Only 5 successful flybys with Galileo (spatial resolution of global NIR observations km) Outstanding questions: - Internal composition linked to the highest temperature of magma - Evolution in the orbital resonance, constrained by the heat flow measurement and evolution
Io observed with NGAO in NIR Up to 0.9 m, thermal output of outburst can be detected (T>1450 K) Up to 0.7 m -> mafic absorption band (centered at 1 m) Thermal band imaging (3-5 m) capabilities are necessary 0.9” Keck NGAO - H BandKeck NGS - H Band FWHM=33 mas FWHM=44 mas
Comparison with HST + Better spatial resolution (~40 km) than Galileo spacecraft global NIR images Surface Changes Plumes No future mission (with imaging capabilities) planned toward Jupiter (brief flyby in 2007 by New Horizons) NGAO on Keck is an highly competitive instrument!
Why do we need NGAO? Best angular resolution provided in visible and NIR Directly image planetary surface and atmosphere, characterized by spectroscopy Excellent and stable Strehl ratio in NIR Detect moonlets around asteroids & KBOs and determine their orbits and spectra. A flexible AO system with service observing Maximize the scientific return and efficiency of the observatory and observe transient events or monitor regularly
Other satellites Satellite name Ang. Size (mas) Max Ang. Sep. (arcsec) Mvcomments Mimas Enceladus Volcanic activity (science, 2006) Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Cryo-volcanoes? Iapetus Io Basaltic volcanic activity Europa Young surface - ocean beneath? Ganymede Ocean? Callisto Himalia Reminder: FWHM PSF(NGAO-R) = 14 mas
Other satellites Reminder: FWHM PSF(NGAO-R) = 12 mas Consider high resolution spectral analysis (R>1000) for atmospheric features. Example geysers on Enceladus Problem due to giant planet halo contribution on the WFS? 80 mas
Other satellites Reminder: FWHM PSF(NGAO-R) = 12 mas Insert here a figure showing which satellites can be observed considering the glare of the planet We should use Van Dam et al. measuremnts (sent to Mate)
How many asteroids observable w/ NGAO? Populations by brightness (numbered asteroids only) Orbital typeTotal numberV < 1515 < V < 1616 < V < 1717 < V < 18 Near Earth Main Belt Trojan Centaur TNO Other
Mysterious Titan Satellite of Saturn - D~5150 km Surface mostly hidden by an opaque prebiotic atmosphere Studied with Cassini spacecraft (4 flyby already) and Huygens lander (Jan. 2004) Spatial resolution of global observations up to 9km in NIR
Titan Surface and its Atmosphere Goals: Observations of an extended object - imaging and spectroscopy of its atmosphere. Comparison with previous NGS AO systems. Illustration of the variability of solar system phenomena (volcanism, clouds) Inputs from TCIS: Simulated short exposure ﾊ On-Axis PSFs (~2-4s) (x10) at various wavelength (NOT YET DEFINED) in good seeing conditions for a bright reference (mv=8.5). Should we expect a degradation due to the angular size of Titan (D=0.8") ﾊ Method:We will create a fake Titan observations considering also the haze component in visible and NIR and using global map (with R= km) of Cassini spacecraft. ﾊ We will focus on atmospheric windows for which the surface can ﾊ be seen (tools are ready MA & FM). Wavelength not defined yet.- Deconvolution with AIDA may be included (algorithm 95% ready FM)- Comparison with Keck NGS AO, VLT AO, and Cassini will be included- Good temporal coverage from the ground vs spacecraft will be discussed and illustrated by surface changes due to a cryo-volcano (and/or clouds in the troposphere?)- Spectroscopy to detect N2+ species in the atmosphere (high R) and measure winds in Titan atmosphere at various altitudes (extremely high R).
Titan Surface and its Atmosphere First results - Comparison of H band observations About the fake image of Titan based on Cassini map at 0.94 m, 600 pixels across, spatial resolution of 9 km (1 mas) near disk center, Minnaert function reflectivity, long=150W, lat=23S FWHM= 44 mas FWHM= 34 mas 0.8”
Titan Surface and its Atmosphere Multi-wavelength observations PSF used : NFAO - no blurring c m Atm. window Prebiotic atmosphere Not completely transparent in visible- NIR
Titan Surface and its Atmosphere Comparison HST-ACS/HRC & Keck NGAO Clear progress in angular resolution compared with HST
Surface Changes on Titan HST/ACS R KNGAO-R Cryovolcanic-style surface change are detectable with KNGAO in J band. In R band morphology is better estimated -> volcano caldera, lava flow?