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Some Topics in Digital Photography Eric Stusnick Mid-Peninsula IBM PC Club August 22, 2005.

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1 Some Topics in Digital Photography Eric Stusnick Mid-Peninsula IBM PC Club August 22, 2005

2 Basic Elements of Digital Photography Image Input Digital Camera Flatbed Scanner Slide/Film Scanner Image Processing ComputerandSoftware Image Output Computer/TV Screen Color Printer Color Slides Computer Projector Professional Services

3 Digital Camera Features Camera Design Camera Design Resolution Resolution Viewfinders Viewfinders Storage Media Storage Media Additional Features Additional Features Digital File Types Digital File Types

4 Camera Design Compact Cameras Compact Cameras –Small size, very light weight –Fixed focus or limited zoom lens (3x) –Liquid crystal display (LCD) + optical viewfinder Prosumer Cameras Prosumer Cameras –Moderate size and weigh –Fixed zoom lens (3x to 12x) with wide-angle and telephoto adaptors available –LCD + electronic viewfinder (EVF) Digital SLR Cameras Digital SLR Cameras –Larger and heavier than other two types –Interchangeable lenses –Optical through-the-lens viewfinder

5 Resolution Determines the maximum amount of detail that can be contained in the digital image Determines the maximum amount of detail that can be contained in the digital image Similar to grain in film photography Similar to grain in film photography Measured in pixels, which are the basic light- sensing elements on the camera’s solid-state image sensor Measured in pixels, which are the basic light- sensing elements on the camera’s solid-state image sensor For example, a sensor that is 1280 pixels wide and 960 pixels high would contain on its surface: 1280 x 960 = 1,228,800 pixels, which would be abbreviated 1.2 mp or 1.2 megapixels For example, a sensor that is 1280 pixels wide and 960 pixels high would contain on its surface: 1280 x 960 = 1,228,800 pixels, which would be abbreviated 1.2 mp or 1.2 megapixels Most cameras allow images to be stored with the maximum resolution of the camera or with several lesser resolutions Most cameras allow images to be stored with the maximum resolution of the camera or with several lesser resolutions

6 Resolution (continued)

7 The resolution needed depends on the ultimate use of the image. If one only wants to send snapshots via e-mail to be viewed on a computer monitor then a resolution of 2 mp or less is adequate. The resolution needed depends on the ultimate use of the image. If one only wants to send snapshots via e-mail to be viewed on a computer monitor then a resolution of 2 mp or less is adequate. The resolution required for color printing depends on the size of the color print desired. Although there are many different opinions on how many megapixels it takes to make a good print of a given size, the table that follows is a reasonable guide The resolution required for color printing depends on the size of the color print desired. Although there are many different opinions on how many megapixels it takes to make a good print of a given size, the table that follows is a reasonable guide

8 Resolution (concluded) 5 mp 1920 x 2400 8” x 10” 2 mp 1200 x 1680 5” x 7” 1 mp 960 x 1200 4” x 5” Resolution Pixel Size Print Size These resolutions represent best-case situations. Acceptable images may be obtained with lower resolutions. I have obtained quite good 8”x10” prints With 2 mp resolution.

9 Resolution vs. Noise The more pixels you place on a sensor of a given size, the smaller each pixel must be. The more pixels you place on a sensor of a given size, the smaller each pixel must be. A pixel converts the light energy entering it into electrical energy - a small pixel produces less electrical current that does a larger pixel. A pixel converts the light energy entering it into electrical energy - a small pixel produces less electrical current that does a larger pixel. The smaller the pixel, the more amplification you must have to get the required signal level. The smaller the pixel, the more amplification you must have to get the required signal level. The more amplification provided, the more electrical noise produced. The more amplification provided, the more electrical noise produced. Thus 8 mp sensors have inherently more noise than do 5 or 6 mp sensors of the same size. Thus 8 mp sensors have inherently more noise than do 5 or 6 mp sensors of the same size. Don’t get more megapixels than you need for the type of photography you intend to do. Don’t get more megapixels than you need for the type of photography you intend to do.

10 Viewfinders Most digital cameras allow the image to be seen with a liquid-crystal display (LCD). However, continuous use of the LCD reduces battery life. Most digital cameras allow the image to be seen with a liquid-crystal display (LCD). However, continuous use of the LCD reduces battery life. Most compact cameras also have an optical viewfinder which, like the viewfinder in a rangefinder camera, does not quite give the same image as is being recorded. Most compact cameras also have an optical viewfinder which, like the viewfinder in a rangefinder camera, does not quite give the same image as is being recorded. Prosumer cameras have an electronic view- finder (EVF) which gives the same image as does the full-size LCD but which uses much less power. Prosumer cameras have an electronic view- finder (EVF) which gives the same image as does the full-size LCD but which uses much less power. LCDs and EVFs also provide additional information about the camera setting, superimposed upon the image being recorded. LCDs and EVFs also provide additional information about the camera setting, superimposed upon the image being recorded.

11 Storage Media The size of a digital image file depends on the resolution used and the format of the file. File sizes from a few tens of kilobytes (kB) to tens of megabytes (mB) are common. The size of a digital image file depends on the resolution used and the format of the file. File sizes from a few tens of kilobytes (kB) to tens of megabytes (mB) are common. The most common storage media in digital cameras are: The most common storage media in digital cameras are: –Compact flash card (CF) –Smart media card (SF) –Memory stick –Multimedia (MMP) –Secure digital (SD) –XD picture cards

12 Additional Features Shooting modes Shooting modes –Macro (getting close to subject) –Preset configurations (e.g. sports-action, portraits, landscapes, night scenes) –Burst mode (taking several images in quick succession) Exposure controls Exposure controls –Full automatic - Exposure –Shutter priority compensation –Aperature priority - Color temperature –Full manual balance

13 Additional Features (concluded) Image stabilization – compensates for small motions of the camera Image stabilization – compensates for small motions of the camera LCD zoom – allows you to magnify the image on the LCD to check details of the recorded image LCD zoom – allows you to magnify the image on the LCD to check details of the recorded image Digital zoom – artificially magnifies a portion of the image to be recorded; does not increase the amount of detail. Digital zoom – artificially magnifies a portion of the image to be recorded; does not increase the amount of detail. Short motion picture capability Short motion picture capability Voice message recording capability Voice message recording capability

14 COMPACT CAMERAS Canon PowerShot S500 Nikon Coolpix 5200 Olympus Stylus 410

15 PROSUMER CAMERAS Canon PowerShot Pro 1 Nikon CoolPix 5700 Olympus C-8080

16 Digital SLRs Canon Digital Rebel Nikon D70

17 Digital File Formats Maximum resolution: Maximum resolution: –TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) –Raw file (name and format proprietary to the camera) Compressed files: Compressed files: –JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Movie files: Movie files: –MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) Sound files: Sound files: –WAV

18 Image Editors Basic Software – –Microsoft Picture It! Photo Premium 10.0 ($50) – –Roxio PhotoSuite 7 Platinum Edition ($30) Intermediate Software – –Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 ($100) – –Jasc Paint Shop Pro Studio ($80) – –ULead PhotoImpact 10.0 ($90) Advanced Software – –Adobe Photoshop CS2 ($600)

19 Color Printers Among color printers – laser, thermal inkjet, dye sublimation, and inkjet – the inkjet is the most common. Common features to consider are: Maximum resolution – measured in dots per inch (dpi) – higher is better Maximum resolution – measured in dots per inch (dpi) – higher is better Dot size – measured in picoliters (pL) – smaller is better Dot size – measured in picoliters (pL) – smaller is better Printing speed - higher is better Printing speed - higher is better Connectivity – USB or Firewire (IEE 1394) (faster) or parallel port (slower) Connectivity – USB or Firewire (IEE 1394) (faster) or parallel port (slower)

20 Color Printers (concluded) The most popular color inkjet printer lines are: The most popular color inkjet printer lines are: –Epson Stylus Photo series –HP Photosmart series –Canon Photo series

21 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? Several years ago you had to be computer savvy to get prints from digital images. Several years ago you had to be computer savvy to get prints from digital images.

22 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? (continued) Three years ago printer manufacturers provided slots for digital storage cards, so you didn’t need to have a computer to make prints. Three years ago printer manufacturers provided slots for digital storage cards, so you didn’t need to have a computer to make prints.

23 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? (continued) At that time, there were only three types of digital storage cards commonly used. At that time, there were only three types of digital storage cards commonly used. Card Types: Smart Media, Compact Flash, Sony Memory Stick

24 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? (continued) But, as time went on, more types of digital storage cards were developed. But, as time went on, more types of digital storage cards were developed. Now, there are at least 10 types. Now, there are at least 10 types. Smart Media Compact lash Memory Stick Memory Stick Pro Memory Stick Duo Multimedia (MMC) Reduced Size Multimedia (RS-MMC) Secure Digital (SD) XD Picture Cards Microdrives

25 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? (continued) So, a few years ago, manufacturers who made both cameras and printers provided for direct connection of their cameras to their printers. So, a few years ago, manufacturers who made both cameras and printers provided for direct connection of their cameras to their printers.

26 What if I Don’t Want to Use a Computer? (concluded) Recently a technology (called PictBridge) was standardized so that any compatible camera can be connected directly to any compatible printer. Recently a technology (called PictBridge) was standardized so that any compatible camera can be connected directly to any compatible printer.

27 PictBridge Supporters Manufacturers who support, or are planning to support, the PictBridge standard are: Canon, Epson, HP, Sony, Olympus, Konica-Minolta, and Fuji. Manufacturers who support, or are planning to support, the PictBridge standard are: Canon, Epson, HP, Sony, Olympus, Konica-Minolta, and Fuji.

28 Bluetooth Technology More recently still, some cameras use Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit images to computers and printers. More recently still, some cameras use Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit images to computers and printers. Some printers have built in Bluetooth receivers to receive these transmitted pictures. Some printers have built in Bluetooth receivers to receive these transmitted pictures.

29 Other Ways To Get Prints Digital storage cards can be taken to a local photo processor and selected images transferred to their photo printing systems. Digital storage cards can be taken to a local photo processor and selected images transferred to their photo printing systems. –Longs –Wal-Mart –Costco –Wolf Camera

30 Other Ways To Get Prints If you have a computer with an Internet connection, you can upload digital images to photo processors and have the prints mailed to you or picked up locally. If you have a computer with an Internet connection, you can upload digital images to photo processors and have the prints mailed to you or picked up locally. Some photo processors allow you to post digital images on their web sites, where others can view them and, if desired, order prints of selected images. Some photo processors allow you to post digital images on their web sites, where others can view them and, if desired, order prints of selected images.

31 Film Photographers Aren’t Forgotten Some photo processors will create digital images from your film and Some photo processors will create digital images from your film and –return a CD with digital images along with your prints or slides, –post your digital images on their web sites, where others can view them and buy prints.

32 Why Get Prints At All? Increasingly, folks with computers and Internet connections are simply e-mailing digital images to each other and viewing them on their computers without every printing the images. Increasingly, folks with computers and Internet connections are simply e-mailing digital images to each other and viewing them on their computers without every printing the images. And slide shows are being replaced with television shows or digital projection. And slide shows are being replaced with television shows or digital projection.

33 Photography and the Internet Photographic Services Photographic Services Photo Magazines Photo Magazines Equipment Reviews Equipment Reviews Photographers Photographers Camera Groups Camera Groups Photograph Display Photograph Display Instruction – General Photography Instruction – General Photography Instruction – Digital Photography Instruction – Digital Photography Instruction – Photoshop Instruction – Photoshop Instruction – Photoshop Elements Instruction – Photoshop Elements

34 PHOTOGRAPHIC SERVICES Costco: http://www.costcophotocenter.com Costco: http://www.costcophotocenter.comhttp://www.costcophotocenter.com Walmart: http://www.walmart.com/catalog/catalog.gsp? cat=175779 Walmart: http://www.walmart.com/catalog/catalog.gsp? cat=175779 http://www.walmart.com/catalog/catalog.gsp? cat=175779 http://www.walmart.com/catalog/catalog.gsp? cat=175779 Ritz/Wolf: http://www.ritzpix.com Ritz/Wolf: http://www.ritzpix.comhttp://www.ritzpix.com Longs/Walgreens (Fujifilm): Longs/Walgreens (Fujifilm): http://www.digitalcameradeveloping.com Kodak (Snapfish): http://www.snapfish.com Kodak (Snapfish): http://www.snapfish.comhttp://www.snapfish.com Shutterfly: http://www.shutterfly.com Shutterfly: http://www.shutterfly.comhttp://www.shutterfly.com

35 PHOTO MAGAZINES http://pcphotomag.com/ http://pcphotomag.com/ http://pcphotomag.com/ http://www.a-digital-eye.com/ http://www.a-digital-eye.com/ http://www.a-digital-eye.com/ http://www.digitalimagingmag.com/ http://www.digitalimagingmag.com/ http://www.digitalimagingmag.com/ http://www.edigitalphoto.com/ http://www.edigitalphoto.com/ http://www.edigitalphoto.com/ http://www.megapixel.net/ http://www.megapixel.net/ http://www.megapixel.net/ http://www.naturephotographers.net/ http://www.naturephotographers.net/ http://www.naturephotographers.net/ http://www.photographic.com/ http://www.photographic.com/ http://www.photographic.com/ http://www.vividlight.com/ http://www.vividlight.com/ http://www.vividlight.com/

36 EQUIPMENT REVIEWS http://www.dcresource.com/ http://www.dcresource.com/ http://www.dcresource.com/ http://www.dcviews.com/ http://www.dcviews.com/ http://www.dcviews.com/ http://www.digitalreview.ca/ http://www.digitalreview.ca/ http://www.digitalreview.ca/ http://www.digitalslr.org/ http://www.digitalslr.org/ http://www.digitalslr.org/ http://www.dpreview.com/ http://www.dpreview.com/ http://www.dpreview.com/ http://www.imaging-resource.com/ http://www.imaging-resource.com/ http://www.imaging-resource.com/ http://www.photo.net/neighbor/one- subcategory?id=2 http://www.photo.net/neighbor/one- subcategory?id=2 http://www.photo.net/neighbor/one- subcategory?id=2 http://www.photo.net/neighbor/one- subcategory?id=2 http://www.photographyreview.com/ http://www.photographyreview.com/ http://www.photographyreview.com/ http://www.steves-digicams.com/ http://www.steves-digicams.com/ http://www.steves-digicams.com/

37 PHOTOGRAPHERS http://brucedale.com/ http://brucedale.com/ http://brucedale.com/ http://georgiabyte.com/ http://georgiabyte.com/ http://georgiabyte.com/ http://users.chartertn.net/cliffs/ http://users.chartertn.net/cliffs/ http://users.chartertn.net/cliffs/ http://www.amateurdigitalphotogallery.co.uk/ http://www.amateurdigitalphotogallery.co.uk/ http://www.amateurdigitalphotogallery.co.uk/ http://www.leppphoto.com/ http://www.leppphoto.com/ http://www.leppphoto.com/ http://www.moose395.net/ http://www.moose395.net/ http://www.moose395.net/ http://www.smallgallery.com/ http://www.smallgallery.com/ http://www.smallgallery.com/ http://www.tawbaware.com/maxlyons/ http://www.tawbaware.com/maxlyons/ http://www.tawbaware.com/maxlyons/ http://www.wtv- zone.com/cal555/index.html#prev http://www.wtv- zone.com/cal555/index.html#prev http://www.wtv- zone.com/cal555/index.html#prev http://www.wtv- zone.com/cal555/index.html#prev

38 CAMERA GROUPS Northern California Council of Camera Clubs: http://n4c.org/ Northern California Council of Camera Clubs: http://n4c.org/http://n4c.org/ Photographic Society of America: http://www.psa-photo.org/ Photographic Society of America: http://www.psa-photo.org/ http://www.psa-photo.org/ PSA Electronic Imaging Division: PSA Electronic Imaging Division: http://psa-eid.org/

39 PHOTOGRAPH DISPLAY http://www.e-photoworks.com/albinator/ http://www.e-photoworks.com/albinator/ http://www.e-photoworks.com/albinator/ http://www.fredmiranda.com/ http://www.fredmiranda.com/ http://www.fredmiranda.com/ http://www.pbase.com/uzgroup http://www.pbase.com/uzgroup http://www.pbase.com/uzgroup http://www.photo.net/photodb/ http://www.photo.net/photodb/ http://www.photo.net/photodb/ http://www.photocritique.net/ http://www.photocritique.net/ http://www.photocritique.net/ http://www.photosig.com/ http://www.photosig.com/ http://www.photosig.com/

40 INSTRUCTION – GENERAL PHOTOGRAPHY http://groups.msn.com/Asktheoleproabou tphotography/ http://groups.msn.com/Asktheoleproabou tphotography/ http://groups.msn.com/Asktheoleproabou tphotography/ http://groups.msn.com/Asktheoleproabou tphotography/ http://medfmt.8k.com/mf/permits.html http://medfmt.8k.com/mf/permits.html http://medfmt.8k.com/mf/permits.html http://www.betterphoto.com/home.asp http://www.betterphoto.com/home.asp http://www.betterphoto.com/home.asp http://www.lightingmagic.com/ http://www.lightingmagic.com/ http://www.lightingmagic.com/ http://www.photonhead.com/simcam/ http://www.photonhead.com/simcam/ http://www.photonhead.com/simcam/

41 INSTRUCTION – DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY http://graphicssoft.about.com/ http://graphicssoft.about.com/ http://graphicssoft.about.com/ http://www.computer-darkroom.com/ http://www.computer-darkroom.com/ http://www.computer-darkroom.com/ http://www.hplearningcenter.com/ http://www.hplearningcenter.com/ http://www.hplearningcenter.com/ http://www.larry-bolch.com/ http://www.larry-bolch.com/ http://www.larry-bolch.com/ http://www.luminous-landscape.com/ http://www.luminous-landscape.com/ http://www.luminous-landscape.com/ http://www.normankoren.com/ http://www.normankoren.com/ http://www.normankoren.com/ http://www.quiknet.com/~frcn/Camera. html http://www.quiknet.com/~frcn/Camera. html http://www.quiknet.com/~frcn/Camera. html http://www.quiknet.com/~frcn/Camera. html http://www.shortcourses.com/ http://www.shortcourses.com/ http://www.shortcourses.com/

42 INSTRUCTION - PHOTOSHOP http://epaperpress.com/psphoto/index.html http://epaperpress.com/psphoto/index.html http://epaperpress.com/psphoto/index.html http://www.myjanee.com/ http://www.myjanee.com/ http://www.myjanee.com/ http://www.photoshoproadmap.com/ http://www.photoshoproadmap.com/ http://www.photoshoproadmap.com/ http://www.photoshopvideos.com/ http://www.photoshopvideos.com/ http://www.photoshopvideos.com/

43 INSTRUCTION – PHOTOSHOP ELEMENTS http://graphicssoft.about.com/cs/photosh opelements/ http://graphicssoft.about.com/cs/photosh opelements/ http://graphicssoft.about.com/cs/photosh opelements/ http://graphicssoft.about.com/cs/photosh opelements/ http://member.melbpc.org.au/~pshipley/ http://member.melbpc.org.au/~pshipley/ http://member.melbpc.org.au/~pshipley/ http://www.hiddenelements.com/ http://www.hiddenelements.com/ http://www.hiddenelements.com/


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