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Rolf Ent, ECT-Trento, October 28, 2008 Spin/Flavor Physics with a Future Electron-Ion Collider Electron-Ion Collider: Options and Status (in US) Gluons.

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Presentation on theme: "Rolf Ent, ECT-Trento, October 28, 2008 Spin/Flavor Physics with a Future Electron-Ion Collider Electron-Ion Collider: Options and Status (in US) Gluons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rolf Ent, ECT-Trento, October 28, 2008 Spin/Flavor Physics with a Future Electron-Ion Collider Electron-Ion Collider: Options and Status (in US) Gluons and Sea Quarks Inclusive DIS Measurement Projections Semi-Inclusive DIS Measurement Projections Deep Exclusive Measurement Projections Electroweak Measurements Summary and Outlook

2 EIC science has evolved from new insights and technical accomplishments over the last decade ~1996 development of GPDs ~1999 high-power energy recovery linac technology ~2000 universal properties of strongly interacting glue ~2000 emergence of transverse-spin phenomenon ~2001 world’s first high energy polarized proton collider ~2003 tantalizing hints of saturation ~2006 electron cooling for high-energy beams

3 NSAC 2007 Long Range Plan “An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) with polarized beams has been embraced by the U.S. nuclear science community as embodying the vision for reaching the next QCD frontier. EIC would provide unique capabilities for the study of QCD well beyond those available at existing facilities worldwide and complementary to those planned for the next generation of accelerators in Europe and Asia. In support of this new direction: We recommend the allocation of resources to develop accelerator and detector technology necessary to lay the foundation for a polarized Electron Ion Collider. The EIC would explore the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclei and precisely image the gluons in the proton.”

4 Electron Cooling Snake IR Four Electron-Ion Collider Facilities Considered PHENIX STAR e-cooling (RHIC II) Four e-beam passes Main ERL (2 GeV per pass) Add electron beam (COSY ring) to GSI/HESR eRHICELIC MANUELLHeC

5 Four Electron-Ion Collider Facilities Considered LHeC: L = 1.1x10 33 cm -2 s -1 E cm = 1.4 TeV EICx2: L > 1x10 33 cm -2 s -1 E cm = 20-100+ GeV Add 70-100 GeV electron ring to interact with LHC ion beam Use LHC-B interaction region High luminosity mainly due to large  ’s (= E/m) of beams Variable energy range Polarized and heavy ion beams High luminosity in energy region of interest for nuclear science Nuclear science goals: Explore the new QCD frontier: strong color fields in nuclei Precisely image the sea-quarks and gluons to determine the spin, flavor and spatial structure of the nucleon. High-Energy physics goals: Parton dynamics at the TeV scale - physics beyond the Standard Model - physics of high parton densities (low x) MANUEL@FAIR: L > 1x10 33 cm -2 s -1 ? E cm = 13 GeV Add 3 GeV electron accelerator to interact with FAIR ion beam Nuclear science goal: Precisely image the sea-quark and gluon structure of the nucleon.

6 Electron-Ion Collider – further info EIC (eRHIC/ELIC) webpage: http://web.mit.edu/eicc/http://web.mit.edu/eicc/ Upcoming meeting: December 11-13, 2008 @ Berkeley 1 st joint BNL/JLab EIC Advisory Committee meeting: February 16, 2009 Next EIC meeting, joint with MANUEL project: May 2009 in Germany

7 Explore the new QCD frontier: strong color fields in nuclei - How do the gluons contribute to the structure of the nucleus? - What are the properties of high density gluon matter? - How do fast quarks or gluons interact as they traverse nuclear matter? Precisely image the sea-quarks and gluons in the nucleon - How do the gluons and sea-quarks contribute to the spin structure of the nucleon? - What is the spatial distribution of the gluons and sea quarks in the nucleon? - How do hadronic final-states form in QCD? Nuclear Science Goals: How do we understand the visible matter in our universe in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons of QCD?

8 Gluons dominate QCD QCD is the fundamental theory that describes structure and interactions in nuclear matter. Without gluons there are no protons, no neutrons, and no atomic nuclei Gluons dominate the structure of the QCD vacuum Facts: –The essential features of QCD (e.g. asymptotic freedom, chiral symmetry breaking, and color confinement) are all driven by the gluons! –Unique aspect of QCD is the self interaction of the gluons –98% of mass of the visible universe arises from glue –Half of the nucleon momentum is carried by gluons

9 9 The Low Energy View of Nuclear Matter nucleus = protons + neutrons nucleon  quark model quark model  QCD The High Energy View of Nuclear Matter The visible Universe is generated by quarks, but dominated by the gluons Remove factor 20 Exposing the high-energy (dark) side of the nuclei

10 CTEQ Example at Scale Q 2 = 10 GeV 2

11 F 2 : Sea (Anti)Quarks Generated by Glue at Low x F 2 will be one of the first measurements at EIC nDS, EKS, FGS: pQCD based models with different amounts of shadowing Syst. studies of F 2 (A,x,Q 2 ):  G(x,Q 2 ) with precision  distinguish between models (Thomas Ullrich, Dave Morrison)

12 Longitudinal Structure Function F L Experimentally can be determined directly IF VARIABLE ENERGIES! Highly sensitive to effects of gluon + 12-GeV data + EIC alone F L at EIC: Measuring the Glue Directly

13 Explore gluon-dominated matter At high gluon density, gluon recombination should compete with gluon splitting  density saturation. What is the role of gluons and gluon self-interactions in nucleons and nuclei? NSAC-2007 Long-Range Plan Report. –The nucleus as a “gluon amplifier” Color glass condensate Oomph factor stands up under scrutiny. Nuclei greatly extend x reach: x EIC = x HERA /18 for 10+100 GeV, Au Longitudinal Structure Function F L (Antje Bruell, Thomas Ullrich)

14 Explore the structure of the nucleon Parton distribution functions Longitudinal and transverse spin distribution functions Generalized parton distributions Transverse momentum distributions

15 The Gluon Contribution to the Proton Spin at small x Superb sensitivity to  g at small x! (Antje Bruell, Abhay Deshpande)

16 Projected data on  g/g with an EIC, via  + p  D 0 + X K - +  + assuming vertex separation of 100  m. Access to  g/g is also possible from the g 1 p measurements through the QCD evolution, and from di-jet measurements. RHIC-Spin The Gluon Contribution to the Proton Spin Advantage: measurements directly at fixed Q 2 ~ 10 GeV 2 scale! Uncertainties in x  g smaller than 0.01 Measure 90% of  G (@ Q 2 = 10 GeV 2 )  g/g (Antje Bruell)

17 Luminosity of 1x10 33 cm -2 sec -1 One day  50 events/pb Supports Precision Experiments Lower value of x scales as s -1 DIS Limit for Q 2 > 1 GeV 2 implies x down to 1.0(1.3) times 10 -4 Significant results for 200 events/pb for inclusive scattering If Q 2 > 10 GeV 2 required for Deep Exclusive Processes can reach x down to 1.0(1.3) times 10 -3 Typical cross sections factor 100- 1,000 smaller than inclusive scattering Significant results for 20,000- 200,000 events/pb  high luminosity essential Luminosity Considerations for EIC eRHIC ELIC (W 2 > 4) x Q 2 (GeV 2 ) W 2 <4 eRHIC: x = 10 -4 @ Q 2 = 1 ELIC : x = 1.3x10 -4 12 GeV: x = 4.5x10 -2 Include low-Q 2 region

18 Spin/Flavor Decomposition  quark polarization  q(x)  first 5-flavor separation DIS probes only the sum of quarks and anti-quarks  requires assumptions on the role of sea quarks Solution: Detect a final state hadron in addition to scattered electron  Can ‘tag’ the flavor of the struck quark by measuring the hadrons produced: ‘flavor tagging’ qparton distribution function d  f elementary   -q sub-process D f h fragmentation function SIDIS  u > 0  d < 0

19 5 on 50 EIC projected data10 on 250 EIC projected data Flavor Decomposition @ EIC Lower x ~ 1/s 5 on 50  s = 1000 10 on 250  s = 10000 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 x Bj 100 days at 10 33 (Ed Kinney, Joe Seele)

20 Precisely image the sea quarks Spin-Flavor Decomposition of the Light Quark Sea | p = + + + … > u u d u u u u d u u d d d Many models predict  u > 0,  d < 0

21 RHIC-Spin region Precisely image the sea quarks Spin-Flavor Decomposition of the Light Quark Sea | p = + + + … > u u d u u u u d u u d d d Many models predict  u > 0,  d < 0 No competition foreseen! 100 days at 10 33

22 New Spin Structure Function: Transversity Nucleon’s transverse spin content  “tensor charge” No transversity of Gluons in Nucleon  “all-valence object” Chiral Odd  only measurable in semi-inclusive DIS  first glimpses exist in data (HERMES, JLab-6)  Later work: more complicated  COMPASS 1 st results: ~0 @ low x  Future: Flavor decomposition - (in transverse basis)  q(x) ~ Need (high) transverse ion polarization (Naomi Makins, Ralf Seidl)

23 ELIC Vanish like 1/p T (Yuan) Correlation between Transverse Spin and Momentum of Quarks in Unpolarized Target All Projected Data Perturbatively Calculable at Large p T - (Harut Avakian, Antje Bruell)

24 Sivers effect: Pion electroproduction EIC measurements at small x will pin down sea contributions to Sivers function S. ArnoldS. Arnold et al arXiv:0805.2137 M. AnselminoM. Anselmino et al arXiv:0805.2677 GRV98, Kretzer FF (4par) GRV98, DSS FF (8par) (Harut Avakian)

25 Sivers effect: Kaon electroproduction At small x of EIC Kaon relative rates higher, making it ideal place to study the Sivers asymmetry in Kaon production (in particular K - ). Combination with CLAS12 data will provide almost complete x-range. EIC CLAS12 (Harut Avakian)

26 Sivers effect: sea contributions Negative Kaons most sensitive to sea contributions. Biggest uncertainty in experimental measurements (K - suppressed at large x). GRV98, DSS FF S. ArnoldS. Arnold et al arXiv:0805.2137 M. AnselminoM. Anselmino et al arXiv:0805.2677 GRV98, Kretzer FF (Harut Avakian)

27 The Future of Fragmentation TMD u (x,k T ) f 1,g 1,f 1T,g 1T h 1, h 1T,h 1L,h 1 p h x TMD  D Current Fragmentation h q Can we understand the physical mechanism of fragmentation and how do we calculate it quantitatively? Target Fragmentation p M h  d  h ~  q f q (x)  D f h (z) d  h ~  q  M h/p q (x,z) QCD Evolution Correlate at EIC

28 Exclusive Processes: EIC Potential and Simulations Diffractive channels - data/experience from HERA:  p (DVCS),  0 p,  p, J/  p - DVCS simulations by A. Sandacz et al., see e.g. http://web.mit.edu/eicc/SBU07/index.html - Found to be feasible with luminosity of 10 33 Non-diffractive channels - New territory for collider! - Much more demanding in luminosity - Physics closely related to JLab 6/12 GeV - quark spin/flavor separations, nucleon/meson structure - Feasibility study of  + n,  0 p, K +  - A. Bruell, T. Horn, V. Guzey, and C. Weiss: in progress

29 GPDs and Transverse Gluon Imaging Deep exclusive measurements in ep/eA with an EIC: diffractive:transverse gluon imagingJ/ ,  o,  (DVCS) non-diffractive:quark spin/flavor structure , K,  +, … [ or J/ , ,  0 , K,  +, … ] Describe correlation of longitudinal momentum and transverse position of quarks/gluons  Transverse quark/gluon imaging of nucleon (“tomography”) Are gluons uniformly distributed in nuclear matter or are there small clumps of glue?

30 GPDs and Transverse Gluon Imaging gives transverse size of quark (parton) with longitud. momentum fraction x EIC: 1) x < 0.1: gluons! x < 0.1x ~ 0.3x ~ 0.8 Fourier transform in momentum transfer x ~ 0.001 2)  ~ 0  the “take out” and “put back” gluons act coherently. 2)  ~ 0 x -  x +   d

31 GPDs and Transverse Gluon Imaging Goal: Transverse gluon imaging of nucleon over wide range of x: 0.001 < x < 0.1 Requires: - Q 2 ~ 10-20 GeV 2 to facilitate interpretation - Wide Q 2, W 2 (x) range - Sufficient luminosity to do differential measurements in Q 2, W 2, t Q 2 = 10 GeV 2 projected data Simultaneous data at other Q 2 -values EIC enables gluon imaging! (Andrzej Sandacz)

32 Statistical uncertainty in  + n measurement Luminosity= 10 31 Γ dσ/dt (ub/GeV2) High luminosity is essential to achieve the experimental goals E e =5 GeVE p =50 GeVAssume: 100 days (Tanja Horn, Antje Bruell, Christian Weiss)

33 Systematic uncertainty on  + n rate estimate Data rates obtained using two different approaches are in reasonable agreement: Ch. Weiss: Regge model T. Horn: π + empirical parameterization 10 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/12/3369981/slides/slide_33.jpg", "name": "Systematic uncertainty on  + n rate estimate Data rates obtained using two different approaches are in reasonable agreement: Ch.", "description": "Weiss: Regge model T. Horn: π + empirical parameterization 10

34 electron K Λ proton π-π- Λ 10 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/12/3369981/slides/slide_34.jpg", "name": "electron K Λ proton π-π- Λ 10

35 eA Landscape and a New Electron Ion Collider Well mapped in e+p Not so for ℓ+A (nA) Electron Ion Collider (EIC): L(EIC) > 100  L(HERA) eRHIC (e+Au): E e = 10 (20) GeV E A = 100 GeV  s eN = 63 (90) GeV L eAu (peak)/n ~ 2.9·10 33 cm -2 s -1 ELIC (e+Au): E e = 10 GeV E A = 100 GeV  s eN = 63 GeV L eAu (peak)/n ~ 2.9·10 34 cm -2 s -1 (500 MHz operation) Terra incognita: small-x, Q  Q s high-x, large Q 2

36 Explore Electroweak Physics What are the unseen forces present at the dawn of the Universe but have disappeared from view as the universe evolved? precision electroweak experiments: sin 2  W, … Questions for the Universe, Quantum Universe, HEPAP, 2004; NSAC Long Range Plan, 2007 “The task of the physicist is to see through the appearances down to the underlying, very simple, symmetric reality.” - S. Weinberg The LHC is driving global interest in low energy tests of the Standard Model. Relatively high x  charge symmetry violation? Preliminary - EIC (Roy Holt)

37 Explore Charge Symmetry Assumed: u = u p = d n & d = d p = u n Valid at < 1% : (M n – M p )/M p ~ 0.1% Figure from: Rodionov et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. Lett. A9 (1994) 1799 [Similar to MRST, Eur. Phys. J. C35 (2004) 325] Accessible by comparison of e + d with e - d charged current cross sections:  u v (x) = u v p – d v n  d v (x) = d v p - u v n

38 Explore Charge Symmetry Assumed: u = u p = d n & d = d p = u n Valid at < 1% : (M n – M p )/M p ~ 0.1%  u v (x) = u v p – d v n  d v (x) = d v p - u v n For the sea alone, CSV may be large! MRST obtained: Accessible through charge symmetry sum rule defined by Ma (Phys. Lett. B274 (1992) 111)

39 Projected A(W - ) Assuming xF 3 will be known Parity-Violating g 5 Structure Function To date unmeasured due to lack of high Q 2 polarized e-p possibility. Assumptions: 1)Q 2 > 225 GeV 2 2)One month at luminosity of 10 33 Requires positron beam (Jose Contreras, Abhay Deshpande)

40 JLab 12 GeV Upgrade: The 12 GeV Upgrade, with its 10 38 + luminosity, is expected to allow for a complete spin and flavor dependence of the valence quark region, both in nucleons and in nuclei. Electron Ion Collider (eRHIC/ELIC/MANUEL) Provide a complete spin and flavor dependence of the nucleon and nuclear sea, study the explicit role that gluons play in the nucleon spin and in nuclei, open the new research territory of “gluon GPDs”, and study the onset of the physics of saturation. Personal View: Spin/Flavor Physics with a Future Electron-Ion Collider

41 Concluding Statement (from Roy Holt at May 2008 EIC Workshop) EIC research can penetrate some of the most profound mysteries and questions of 21 st century physics. Technology is improving at an astounding rate: –Accelerator design, cavity improvement, energy recovery, crab cavities, cooling, polarization, polarimetry, detectors, petascale computing, … There are interesting new opportunities worldwide. The next 10 years will be even more exciting than the last 10 years. We must put forward a most compelling case for the EIC on the time scale of the next LRP, folding in the international plans: –EIC project may be “Global” due to size (OECD Global Science Forum)

42

43 Diffractive Surprises ‘Standard DIS event’ Detector activity in proton direction 7 TeV equivalent electron bombarding the proton … but proton remains intact in 15% of cases … Diffractive event No activity in proton direction Predictions for eA for such hard diffractive evens range up to: ~30-40%... given saturation models Look inside the “Pomeron”  Diffractive structure functions  Diffractive vector meson production ~ [G(x,Q 2 )] 2

44 GPDs and Transverse Gluon Imaging k k'k' ** q q'q'  pp'p' e A Major new direction in Nuclear Science aimed at the 3-D mapping of the quark structure of the nucleon. Simplest process: Deep-Virtual Compton Scattering Simultaneous measurements over large range in x, Q 2, t at EIC! At small x (large W):  ~ G(x,Q 2 ) 2

45 A large community believes a high luminosity polarized electron ion collider is the ultimate tool to understand the structure of quark-gluon systems, nuclear binding, and the conversion of energy into matter to such detailed level that we can use/apply QCD. An Electron Ion Collider will allow us to look in detail into the sea of quarks and gluons, to create and study gluons, and to discover how energy transforms into matter From DOE 20-year plan Spin Structure of the Nucleon - Gluon and sea quark polarization - The role of orbital momentum Partonic Understanding of Nuclei - Gluon momentum distributions in Nuclei - Fundamental explanation of Nuclear Binding - Gluons in saturation, the Colored Glass Condensate - Hard diffraction Precision Tests of QCD - Bjorken Sum Rule

46 Gluons in the Nucleus Note: not all models carefully checked against existing data + some models include saturation physics

47 1 H(e,e’K)Λ Momentum and Angle Distributions


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