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Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan: Alternatives and.

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Presentation on theme: "Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan: Alternatives and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan: Alternatives and Renewables Alex Ignatiev Alternative Energy Research Institute and Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Houston, TX USA

2 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston What is Sustainable Development? Development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

3 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Environment Economy Social / Equity Sustainable Energy Development Has Three Dimensions The Green Economy……

4 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Economic Dimension An economically sustainable Energy System must be able to produce energy on a continuing basis, cost effectively, and in support of a growth economy Environmental Dimension Must have a stable resource base - cannot overwhelm the environment. Deplete non-renewables only to the extent that there is investment in renewable substitutes. Social Dimension Achieve distributional equity - adequate provision of energy services anywhere in the country Sustainability - The Green Economy

5 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Doing Sustainable Energy Development requires: Attempting to integrate (or perhaps just balance) environmental, social, and economic values... Increased Use of Electricity Look at Energy Usage….. Future Trend of Electricity Use

6 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Electricity as the Future Source of Energy Coal Fired Steam Turbine/Generator Gas Fired Turbine/Generator Oil Fired Steam Turbine/Generator Most Present Electricity Generation Hydrocarbon Fuels….. Low Generation/Fuel Cost High Ignored Cost

7 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Sunlight – Solar Energy Solar Cells - Sunlight-to-Electricity…. Wind – Wind Turbine Energy Wind Turbines – Wind-to-Electricity Clean and Sustainable Electrical Energy Generation Hydro-Powered Turbine/Generator Geothermal Heated Steam Turbine/Generator Moderate to High Generation Cost Low Ignored Cost

8 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Ignored Costs of Electrical Energy Generation global warming public health occupational health material damage Reduce Ignored Costs… Improve Sustainability Reduce Fossil Fuel Use – Increased Efficiency

9 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Increased Efficiency of Current Electrical Energy Generation Generate Electrical Energy More Efficiently from Fuels Use Solid Oxide Fuel Cell … 55-60% Efficiency Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Methane, Diesel, Alcohol.. Institute for Physics & Technology – Almaty Currently: Heat-Steam-Turbine-Generator 33-35% Efficiency Future Fuel for Fuel Cells – Hydrogen… There is Enough Water to Sustain a Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen from Water 1 GJ per 90 liters H 2 O  need 3.6x10 13 liters Hydrogen from Water - E lectrolysis

10 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Increased Efficiency Solar Cells Cover Complete Solar Spectrum Multi-Junction III-VCells Epitaxially Grown Cells – 42% Crystalline Silicon - Amorphous Silicon Heterojunction Cell -23%

11 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Ge E g =0.66 eV InGaAs E g =1.4 eV InGaP E g =2.0 eV Cell -InGaNP E g =1.0 eV Projected ~50 % Efficiency Under Concentration Further Increase Solar Cell Efficiency

12 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Increased Efficiency Wind Turbines HTS Direct Drive Multipole Generator…. ½ size/weight High Temp Superconductivity Rare Earth Oxides YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x - (93K)

13 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Ultimate Sustainable Energy Source New Energy Source with Environmental, Economic and Social Benefit Municipal Solid Waste Currently Buried/Burned Major Ecological Impact….. Air and Water Pollution Municipal Solid Waste…

14 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Municipal Solid Waste MSW Mostly Organic 100 tons/day for 100,000 people Convert Organic MSW to ENERGY….. Ecologically Ideal…… Gas Product – Syngas (H 2 + CO) Plasma Processing Gasify Organics Immobilize Inorganics in Slag No Ash or Toxins Released

15 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Plasma Processing of MSW Fuel Source From MSW - Syngas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reactions w/Syngas 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O 2CO + O 2  2CO t/d → 10MW Power Municipal Solid Waste To Energy Ecological Benefit Social Benefit Economic Benefit Ideal Sustainable Energy Source

16 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Integrate Energy Sources for Sustainability The Future: the Enernet…… Interconnected Smart Sustainable (Bob Metcalf) Solar Wind Geothermal Fuel Cells – Hydrogen Hydro Energy Efficient Buildings

17 Alternative Energy Research Institute Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Protect the environment and at the same time fulfill economic and social objectives The Sustainable Energy Principle


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