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Neutrino Oscillation Appearance with OPERA Amina ZGHICHE Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus.

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Presentation on theme: "Neutrino Oscillation Appearance with OPERA Amina ZGHICHE Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neutrino Oscillation Appearance with OPERA Amina ZGHICHE Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus

2 Neutrino : a SM particle as any other It fits in the SM picture arXiv:hep-ex/ Phys.Rept.427: ,2006 N light_ = ± YES 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 2

3 Has a mass and Very low one (< 1 eV/c 2 ) Hint for physics beyond the SM May be its own anti-particle Only a weakly interacting particle Produced as a coherent mix of three mass eigenstates in the weak interaction processes Oscillates Many parameters already precisely measured and some still not known Neutrino : a SM particle as any other? Not quite 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 3

4 Oscillation and mass: MNSP Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata-Pontecorvo neutrino mixing Matrix: 4 parameters to be determined +2 (∆m 2 ) Oscillation Probability: U  j : mixing matrix element 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 4

5 SNO e  e  sun PANORAMA of the Oscillation measurements by DISAPPEARANCE (last 15 years) atmospheric showers (L ~20 et km) Superkamiokande    1998 Neutrino beam (L ~730 km)    Minos 2005 Reactor (L ~180 km) /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

6 The appearance case with OPERA  ≈  /4  <  /15  ≈  /6 Requirements: 1- High neutrino energy 2- High beam intensity 3- Long Baseline 4- Detection of short lived ‘s ( s ) 5- Massive Underground detector 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 6

7 CNGS Description 7 SPS protons: 400 GeV/c Every: 6 s, two pulses of 10.5 s separated by 50 ms Proton pulses extracted by kicker magnet Beam intensity: 2.0 x proton/extraction ~ pure muon neutrino beam ( = 17 GeV) 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

8 CNGS Experiments at LNGS /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

9 9 Target basic unit: ECC brick = nuclear emulsion films interleaved by lead plates + 2 interface emulsion films (CS)  Massive target with micrometric space resolution Electronic detectors to provide “time resolution” to the emulsion films and preselect the interaction region 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

10 OPERA Detector 10 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

11 OPERA: POTs and Neutrino interactions YearProton On Target (POT) Number of Neutrino interactions Integrated POT / Proposal Value x % x % x % x % 2012~4.0x10 19 ~3892~80% ALL ~18x10 19 ~17270~80% Expected interactions for pot ~  CC+NC ~ 170 e + anti- e CC ~ 115  CC (∆m 2 =2.5 x 10-3 eV2) 11 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

12 Neutrinos seen by the OPERA Electronic detector The first data taking “INTERNAL or contained” EVENTS “EXTERNAL” CC-EVENTS (neutrino interactions in the rock) 12/40 With µ µ CC τ CC,   (17.4%) Without µ or NC-like NC τ CC,   e (17.8%) τ CC,   h, 3h (49.2%,15.2%) e CC -like 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

13 OPERA Sensitivity to Neutrino Oscillations 13  decay channel B.R.(%)SignalBack -ground    e e  h h   3h ALLBR*eff~8% /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

14 The background  Decay channel   e e  h h   3h All Charm  Scattering h interact ALL  5 years of nominal beam ( pot/year)  All channels: BR*global efficiency ~8%  Possible additional kinematical variable analysis (  h)  Need solid understanding of hadronic system by comparing to real data (   CC) Primary lepton not identified. Good (95%)  identification mandatory  --   h h ,e  -,e- D+D+  + e+ h + Charm production in CC (all channels) Coulomb large angle scattering of  in Pb (   ) Hadron interactions in Pb (   h) 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 14

15 OPERA DETECTOR FEATURES 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 15

16 The OPERA FIRST Data Taking with Electronic Detectors: ONLINE beam veto RPC+HPT+Magnet muon spectrometer muon Id, sign and momentum measurement Brick wall and Target Tracker 15K bricks=1.25Kton 31 walls per Super Module Each Brick wall is followed by a Target Tracker plane For the interaction preselect ion (trigger) and the event localization (brick finding) 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 16

17 Brick finding BMS (LAPP-Annecy): Twin Brick Manipulating System one on each side of the detector. They run over z,x axis, 18mx10m with a precision of 1-2mm And push 26 bricksx8Kg through ~3m Filled the target and now used to extract the candidate brick beam 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 17

18 The OPERA SECOND Data Taking with SCANNING 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 18

19 Event Location and vertex reconstruction Scan Back Volume Scan Low Energy tracks High Energy tracks 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 19

20 Impact parameter separation power into a decay search process IP distribution for ν τ events(MC) 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 20

21 Momentum Measurement N Agafonova et al 2012 New J. Phys in the lead/emulsion film sandwich and comparison with electronic detector measurements Momentum measurement by Muliple Coulomb Scarering 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 21/40

22 Calibration with µ CC charm events Similar lifetime and decay topology 49 events detected, 51. 0± 7.5 expected 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 22

23 OPERA  →  2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 23

24 First  candidate event decay search, released in 2010 (Phys. Lett. B (2010) 138) Background sourcesrate Prompt  ~10 -7 /CC Decay of charmed particles produced in νe interactions~10 -6 /CC Double charm production~10 -6 /CC Decay of charmed particles produced in ν μ interactions~10 -5 /CC Hadronic reinteractions~10 -5 /CC VariableValueSelection Criteria Kink(mrad)41 ±2>20 Decay length (mm) 1335 ±35Within 2 lead plates P daughter (GeV/c) >2 Pt (MeV/c) >300 (g attached) Missing Pt (MeV/c) <1000 φ (deg)173 ±2> /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 24

25 Second  candidate event 25 TrackMomentum( 1  interval(GeV/ c) Particle Id Method/Comment Prima ry 2.8( )hadronNot a muon (stops after 2 bricks), momentum range OK d16.6( )hadronMomentum range Ok d21.3( )hadronidem d32.0( )hadron)Interaction in the brick at 1.3 cm downstream /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

26 26  decay channel SignalBack -ground Charm  scattering h interactions    e e  h h   3h ALL Background expectation for the analyzed data (preliminary) yearsStatus of the analysis #of events for decay search Expected  events (preliminary) Observed  Candidate events Expected background for  events(preliminary) completed In progress started ALL Summary of the data processing Main background is charm events associated with muon Id failure 0.05 BG event expected for the second candidate 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

27 27     -  + hadrons et  -   o  - OPERA with CNGS beam     730 km 2010 T2K with JPARC beam   e km A 2 nd  event observed in 2012 PANORAMA of the Oscillation measurements by APPEARANCE (LAST 3 YEARS) (LBL) 10 candidates back exp km 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

28 28 Lead to the major breakthrough:  13 measurement T2K :   e T2K sin 2 2  13 = (±10%) 10 candidates back exp LBL appearance of e 3 experiments: Double Chooz (France) Daya Bay (China) Reno (Korea) e  e Reactors with disappearance of  e  13 large => good for mass hierarchy determination and CP violation searches /8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

29 OPERA  → e 5.3x10 19 pot data 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 29

30 OPERA as an electromagnetic (em) calorimeter 56mm of Pb=10X 0 Three steps with a NN algorithm: - Shower Reconstruction - Identification (separation from pions) - Energy estimation Shower extension(# films) ID efficiency/5films Standard volume em Shower energy(GeV) Energy Resolution Preliminary MC Preliminary MC 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 30

31 Multi Variable analysis of the  → e oscillation channel (1-MC-preliminary)  → e CNGS e  → e  NC  → e CNGS e  → e  NC  → e CNGS e  → e  NC  → e CNGS e  → e  NC Preliminary MC 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 31

32 Multi Variable analysis of the  → e oscillation channel (2-MC-preliminary) Without MVA: Signal/BG =0.058 With MVA: Signal/BG=0.22 (~4 times improvement) BG suppression needs to be improved 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 32/40

33  → e search through e.m. showers in the data Event sample: 505NC--‐like events in 2008 and 2009 For each located event (all tracks found) – Extrapolate each track up to the CS – Search the shower pattern (3 or more track element )on CS – scan back additional volume from the CS hint and perform the e.m. shower reconstruction if found. – 86 events with showers selected – 19 e events confirmed 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 33

34 DATA – MC comparison (preliminary)  Data - BG MC -SIGNAL MC Visible EnergyElectron Energy Missing P T  angle  Data - BG MC -SIGNAL MC  Data - BG MC -SIGNAL MC  Data - BG MC -SIGNAL MC MVA analysisrate MC signal region7.9±2.7 MC BG region18.8 ± 4.8 Data signal region6±2 DATA BG region13±4 Compatible, not significant for oscillation 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 34

35 OPERA Oscillation Results at Neutrino2012: data Observed ν e events : 19 Expected ν e events: Oscillated ν e events :1.5 Beam ν e BG events :19.2 After low energy event selection (Eν < 20GeV): Observed ν e events: 4 Expected ν e events: Oscillated ν e events :1.1 Beam ν e BG events : x10 19 pot S and BG Compatible, not significant for oscillation 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 35

36 Any other non standard oscillation Window left by the full OPERA statistic for sterile? ICARUS:arXiv: v3 Standard three flavour mixing 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 36

37 Neutrino velocity CNGS Proton pulses individually measured (1 ns sampling) Time stamped and logged in the CERN DB Synchroni -zation 2 TWIN high accuracy timing system Common View Mode OPERA Time distributions of the ON TIME events 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 37

38 2012 measurement with CNGS bunched beam 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 38

39 Results for neutrino velocity JHEP(2013)153 δt ν = (0.7 ± 0.4(stat) ± 1.6(syst.-uncorr.) ± 2.5(syst.-corr)) ns 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 39

40 Conclusion OPERA experiment: aimed the direct detection of ν μ → ν τ oscillations in APPEARANCE MODE, successfully taking data since 2008, Total integrated luminosity: ~18.0x10 19 pot ~= 80% of the nominal value (22.5 x ) 2 ν μ → ν τ candidate events: τ → 1 prong: τ → ρ(π-π0)ν τ τ → 3 h ν τ 1.9 signal and 0.18 background expected Preliminary result on the ν μ → ν e oscillation analysis 19 events observed, 4 with energy < 20 GeV (expected osc. Signal 1.1, BG 3.9) constraints in the high Δm 2 region but no final answer foreseen New improved result under final discussion within the collaboration About 56% of the data has still to go through the second data taking (scanning…) and analysis Neutrino velocity measurement: 2012 bunched beam result: δt ν = (0.7 ± 0.4(stat) ± 1.6(syst.-uncorr.) ± 2.5(syst.-corr)) ns 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 40

41 THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 41

42 OPERA sensitivity 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP 42 Full mixing and Δm 2 23 ~2.4x10 ‐3 eV 2 The green hashed band indicates the OPERA allowed region (90%CL) for the above parameter value and for 22.5x10 19 pot

43 43 6 parameters  m 2 12  m 2 23  sin²  12 sin²  23 sin²  13  eV² eV² % Precision 2  5% 7% 11% 12% Valeur ? Ref: G.L. Fogli et al. arXiv: v3 Where we stand in 2012 Signe ? Échelle de masse ? 2/8/2013 QM UoL Amina ZGHICHE-LAPP

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