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Universal Gravitation Sir Isaac Newton Terrestrial Celestial

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F = G m 1 m 2 /r 2 For any two masses in the universe: G = a constant later evaluated by Cavendish +F -F r m1m1 m2m2 UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

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CAVENDISH: MEASURED G Modern value: G = 6.674* Nm 2 /kg 2

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Two people pass in a hall. Find the gravitational force between them. l m 1 = m 2 = 70 kg l r = 1 m m1m1 m2m2 r F = (6.67 x N-m 2 /kg 2 )(70 kg)(70 kg)/(1 m) 2 F = 3.3 x N

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Earth-Moon Force l Mass of Earth: 5.97 x kg l Mass of Moon: 7.35 x kg l Earth-Moon Distance: 3.84 x 10 8 m l What is the force between the earth and the moon? F = (6.67 x N m 2 / kg 2 )(5.97x10 24 kg)(7.35x10 22 )/(3.84x10 8 ) x N

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Practice l What is the gravitational force of attraction between a 100 kg football player on the earth and the earth?

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Definition of Weight l The weight of an object is the gravitational force the earth exerts on the object. çWeight = GM E m/R E 2 l Weight can also be expressed çWeight = mg l Combining these expressions çmg = GM E m/R E 2 »R E = 6.37*10 6 m = 6370 km »M E = 5.97 x kg çg = GM E /R E 2 = 9.8 m/s 2 l The value of the gravitational field strength (g) on any celestial body can be determined by using the above formula.

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Apparent Weight is the normal support force. In an inertial (non-accelerating) frame of reference F N = F G What is the weight of a 70 kg astronaut in a satellite with an orbital radius of 1.3 x 10 7 m? Weight = GMm/r 2 Using: G = 6.67 x N-m 2 /kg 2 and M = 5.98 x kg Weight = 165 N What is the astronaut’s apparent weight? The astronaut is in uniform circular motion about Earth. The net force on the astronaut is the gravitational force. The normal force is 0. The astronaut’s apparent weight is 0. Apparent Weight Apparent Weightlessness Spring scale measures normal force

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Tides l F G by moon on A > F G by moon on B l F G by moon on B > F G by moon on C l Earth-Moon distance: 385,000 km which is about 60 earth radii l Sun also produces tides, but it is a smaller effect due to greater Earth-Sun distance. ç1.5 x 10 8 km Different distances to moon is dominant cause of earth’s tides High high tides; low low tides Low high tides; high low tides Spring Tides Neap Tides

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Tide Animation l

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Satellite Motion The net force on the satellite is the gravitational force. F net = F G Assuming a circular orbit: ma c = GmM e /r 2 For low orbits (few hundred km up) this turns out to be about 8 km/s = mph Note that the satellite mass cancels out. m MeMe r Using

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TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission l The TRMM orbit is circular and is at an altitude of 218 nautical miles (350 km) and an inclination of 35 degrees to the Equator. l The spacecraft takes about 91 minutes to complete one orbit around the Earth. This orbit allows for as much coverage of the tropics and extraction of rainfall data over the 24-hour day (16 orbits) as possible.

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Geosynchronous Satellite r = 42,000 km = 26,000 mi In order to remain above the same point on the surface of the earth, what must be the period of the satellite’s orbit? What orbital radius is required? T = 24 hr = 86,400 s Using Actually the theoretical derivation of Kepler’s Third Law

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A Colorful Character l Highly accurate data l Gave his data to Kepler Copper/silver nose Lost nose in a duel

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Kepler’s First Law l The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus Johannes Kepler Other focus is the empty focus PF 1 + PF 2 = 2a perihelion aphelion A comet falls into a small elliptical orbit after a “brush” with Jupiter

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Orbital Eccentricities eccentricity = c/a or distance between foci divided by length of major axis

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Kepler’s Second Law l Law of Equal Areas l A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time

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Kepler’s Third Law T 2 = K R av 3 T 2 = [4 2 /GM]r 3 Square of any planet's orbital period (sidereal) is proportional to cube of its mean distance (semi-major axis) from Sun Recall from a previous slide the derivation of R av = (R a + R p )/2 from F net = F G PlanetT (yr)R (AU)T2T2 R3R3 Mercury Venus Earth1.00 Mars Jupiter Saturn K for our sun as the primary is 1 yr 2 /AU 3 K = 4 2 /GM The value of K for an orbital system depends on the mass of the primary

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HALLEY’S COMET He observed it in 1682, predicting that, if it obeyed Kepler’s laws, it would return in When it did, (after Halley’s death) it was regarded as a triumph of Newton’s laws.

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DISCOVERY OF NEW PLANETS Small departures from elliptical orbits occur due to the gravitational forces of other planets. Deviations in the orbit of Uranus led two astronomers to predict the position of another unobserved planet. This is how Neptune was added to the Solar System in Deviations in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune led to the discovery of Pluto in 1930

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Newton Universal Gravitation l Three laws of motion and law of gravitation l eccentric orbits of comets çcause of tides and their variations çthe precession of the earth’s axis çthe perturbation of the motion of the moon by gravity of the sun l Solved most known problems of astronomy and terrestrial physics çWork of Galileo, Copernicus and Kepler unified. Galileo Galili Nicholaus Copernicus Johannes Kepler

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Simulations & Videos l l l l

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