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Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 1 CPET 355 2. The Physical Layer - Wireless Transmission Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 1 CPET 355 2. The Physical Layer - Wireless Transmission Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 1 CPET The Physical Layer - Wireless Transmission Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology Purdue University, Fort Wayne Campus

2 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum NASA NASA w_l1/emspectrum.htmhttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/kno w_l1/emspectrum.htmhttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/kno w_l1/emspectrum.htmhttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/kno w_l1/emspectrum.htm lhttp://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/waves3.htm lhttp://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/waves3.htm lhttp://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/waves3.htm l Berkeley Lab: Electromagnetic Spectrumhttp://www.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/ ALSTool/EMSpec/EMSpec2.html Berkeley Lab: Electromagnetic Spectrumhttp://www.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/ ALSTool/EMSpec/EMSpec2.htmlhttp://www.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/ ALSTool/EMSpec/EMSpec2.htmlhttp://www.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/ ALSTool/EMSpec/EMSpec2.html Naval Spectrum Management Support- m Naval Spectrum Management Support- m m m

3 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 3 Frequency Allocation Radio wave- < 3 x10 9 HzRadio wave- < 3 x10 9 Hz Microwave – 3.0x10 9 – 3x10 12 HzMicrowave – 3.0x10 9 – 3x10 12 Hz Infrared- 3.0x10 12 – 4.3x10 14 HzInfrared- 3.0x10 12 – 4.3x10 14 Hz Visible- 4.3x10 14 – 7.5x10 14 HzVisible- 4.3x10 14 – 7.5x10 14 Hz Ultraviolet- 7.5x10 14 – 3.0x10 17 HzUltraviolet- 7.5x10 14 – 3.0x10 17 Hz X-Rays- 3.0x10 17 – 3.0x10 19 HzX-Rays- 3.0x10 17 – 3.0x10 19 Hz Gamma Rays - > 3.0x10 19 HzGamma Rays - > 3.0x10 19 Hz f = cf = c Wavelength*Frequency = speed of light

4 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 4 Wavelength f = cf = c Wavelength*Frequency = speed of light Electromagnetic Wave Electromagnetic Wave um/http://www.geo.mtu.edu/rs/back/spectr um/http://www.geo.mtu.edu/rs/back/spectr um/http://www.geo.mtu.edu/rs/back/spectr um/ An Applet Example - p/applist/Spectrum/s.htm An Applet Example - p/applist/Spectrum/s.htm p/applist/Spectrum/s.htm p/applist/Spectrum/s.htm

5 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 5 Spectrum for Wireless Transmission Usable spectrum: Radio wave, Microwave, Infrared, and Visible light Usable spectrum: Radio wave, Microwave, Infrared, and Visible light f = c f = c/f = c f = c/ df/d = c/ 2 f = c  / 2 Narrow frequency band Narrow frequency band f/f << 1, best reception (watts/Hz) Frequency hopping spread spectrum Frequency hopping spread spectrum Military application, , Bluetooth,Military application, , Bluetooth,

6 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 6 Wireless Transmission Federal Regulations Federal Regulations Wireless Telecommunication Bureau, Telecommunication Bureau, Emerging Wireless Technologies, Emerging Wireless Technologies, 3G Wireless 3G Wireless Broadband Broadband Digital TV Digital TV Lower Power FM Lower Power FM Rural Wireless ISP Rural Wireless ISP Voice Over IP Voice Over IP

7 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 7 Wireless Transmission Radio Transmission Radio Transmission Microwave Transmission Microwave Transmission Lightwave Transmission Lightwave Transmission Satellite Communications Satellite Communications

8 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 8 Radio Transmission Omnidirectional systems Omnidirectional systems For indoor and outdoorFor indoor and outdoor No need for physical alignmentNo need for physical alignment Can penetrate buildings easilyCan penetrate buildings easily Low bandwidthLow bandwidth Examples Examples Paging – short message, 10s of k metersPaging – short message, 10s of k meters Cordless telephone – analog/digital, 10s of metersCordless telephone – analog/digital, 10s of meters Cellular phone – analog/digital/data, k metersCellular phone – analog/digital/data, k meters Personal communication services – digital voice and data, 100s of metersPersonal communication services – digital voice and data, 100s of meters

9 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 9 Microwave Transmission Wave > 100 MHz can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke Wave > 100 MHz can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke Do not passing through building well, and has multipath fading effect (some delay waves that may cancel the signals) Do not passing through building well, and has multipath fading effect (some delay waves that may cancel the signals) Wave can travel in nearly straight line and can be narrowly focused for transmitting information (data & voice) Wave can travel in nearly straight line and can be narrowly focused for transmitting information (data & voice) 100 meter tower, repeaters can be spaced by 80 km apart 100 meter tower, repeaters can be spaced by 80 km apart

10 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 10 Microwave Transmission Microwave Spectrum Microwave Spectrum ISM bands – Industrial, Scientific and Medical for unlicensed usage ISM bands – Industrial, Scientific and Medical for unlicensed usage International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Union MHz – crowded, not available world wide900 MHz – crowded, not available world wide 2.4 GHz – available worldwide; wireless LAN2.4 GHz – available worldwide; wireless LAN 5.7 GHz – new; a use it5.7 GHz – new; a use it

11 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 11 Microwave Transmission Applications Applications Microwave cooking (about foot wavelength)Microwave cooking (about foot wavelength) Transmitting information: data and phone (can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke)Transmitting information: data and phone (can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke) Remote sensing – weather forecastingRemote sensing – weather forecasting Wireless LANWireless LAN

12 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 12 Lightwave Transmission IrDA Association - IrDA Association - Wavelength range – 850 nm to 900 nm Wavelength range – 850 nm to 900 nm IrDA-C IrDA-C 75 kbps, up to 8 meters75 kbps, up to 8 meters IrDA-D IrDA-D 115 kbps to 4Mbps, up to 1 meter115 kbps to 4Mbps, up to 1 meter

13 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 13 Satellite Communications GOES (Geostationary Satellite) Systems GOES (Geostationary Satellite) Systems 36,000 km above the equator36,000 km above the equator Transponder data rate – 50 Mbps, at 4/6. 11/14, and 20/30 GHz bandsTransponder data rate – 50 Mbps, at 4/6. 11/14, and 20/30 GHz bands LEOS (Low-Earth Orbit Satellite) Systems LEOS (Low-Earth Orbit Satellite) Systems MEOS (Multiple-mission Earth Observatory Satellite) Systems MEOS (Multiple-mission Earth Observatory Satellite) Systems

14 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 14 GOES Satellite Communications Significant satellite operators & Industries Significant satellite operators & Industries GOES Satellites s/rs/sat/goes/home.rxml GOES Satellites s/rs/sat/goes/home.rxml s/rs/sat/goes/home.rxml s/rs/sat/goes/home.rxml GOES Science Projects GOES Science Projects GOES Servers GOES Servers

15 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 15 Satellite Communications Overview of LEO Satellite Systems Overview of LEO Satellite Systems /slides99/red/red_s.pdfhttp://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/meetings/art/art99 /slides99/red/red_s.pdfhttp://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/meetings/art/art99 /slides99/red/red_s.pdfhttp://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/meetings/art/art99 /slides99/red/red_s.pdf LEOS (Low-Earth Orbit Satellite) LEOS (Low-Earth Orbit Satellite) Technologies and Trends htmlTechnologies and Trends html html html Routing and Multicasting in LEO Satellite IP Networks Routing and Multicasting in LEO Satellite IP Networks p.htmlhttp://users.ece.gatech.edu/~cchen/routing/dr p.htmlhttp://users.ece.gatech.edu/~cchen/routing/dr p.htmlhttp://users.ece.gatech.edu/~cchen/routing/dr p.html

16 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 16 MEOS Satellite Multiple-mission Earth Observatory Satellite Multiple-mission Earth Observatory Satellite eedings/eump33/pdf/session_5/softwar e/oynes.pdfhttp://www.eumetsat.de/en/area2/proc eedings/eump33/pdf/session_5/softwar e/oynes.pdfhttp://www.eumetsat.de/en/area2/proc eedings/eump33/pdf/session_5/softwar e/oynes.pdfhttp://www.eumetsat.de/en/area2/proc eedings/eump33/pdf/session_5/softwar e/oynes.pdf

17 Feb. 2, 2004 Prof. Paul Lin 17 Web References Hughes Network Systems, Hughes Network Systems, = _314&type=ORGhttp://research.mwjournal.com/data/detail?id = _314&type=ORGhttp://research.mwjournal.com/data/detail?id = _314&type=ORGhttp://research.mwjournal.com/data/detail?id = _314&type=ORG NEC Optical Network Division NEC Optical Network Division Panduit Network Connectivity Solutions Panduit Network Connectivity Solutions Errcsson Microwave Systems AB Errcsson Microwave Systems AB Northrop Grumman – California Microwave Systemshttp://sensor1.northgrum.com/calmw/ Northrop Grumman – California Microwave Systemshttp://sensor1.northgrum.com/calmw/http://sensor1.northgrum.com/calmw/


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