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Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact.

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Presentation on theme: "Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact

2 Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact Uranium mines and mills Bauxite mines Mineral sands Natural

3 Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

4 238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

5 238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

6 238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

7 238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series 228 Ra 5.75 y 232 Th series

8 238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series 228 Ra 5.75 y 232 Th series 1 Bq (becquerel) = 1 Nuclear disintegration per second Sv (sievert), Gy (gray) : Units of radiation dose

9 NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

10 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption

11 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Typical 226 Ra activity concentration Water:  m Bq.kg -1 Soil:  Bq.kg -1 Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption

12 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Typical 226 Ra activity concentration Water:  m Bq.kg -1 Soil:  Bq.kg -1 Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered

13 Spa waters Helidon 226 Ra activity concentration (Bq.L -1 ) 1.27, 1.22, 1.1, 0.62, 0.50

14 Spa waters Helidon 226 Ra activity concentration (Bq.L -1 ) 1.27, 1.22, 1.1, 0.62, 0.50

15 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered 1.13 ± 0.02 Bq.L ± Bq.L -1 WATER

16 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered 911 ± 14 Bq.L ± 10 Bq.kg -1 SEDIMENT / SOIL 17 ± 2 Bq.L -1 Koulouris, Dharmasiri, Akber 1996

17 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered

18 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered Akber, Johnston, Hancock 1992 U Ra Mg

19 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application + H 2 O H2OH2O Application Soil surface Sub surface

20 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application + H 2 O H2OH2O Application Soil surface Sub surface

21 NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application 226 Ra 228 Ra Akber, Marten 1992 Outside Irrigated Land Irrigated Land

22 NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

23 NORM Radon – 222 Rn Soil surface Interstitial space Soil grain 2: Rn migration 3: Rn exhalation 1: Rn emanation

24 2 1 0 Pb y 222Rn222Rn α 214Bi214Bi 214Pb214Pb 218Po218Po 226Ra226Ra 214Po214Po R a y R a y P b y NORM Radon – 222 Rn

25 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon comes out of the U rocks? Holdsworth, Akber 2004

26 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon comes out of the U rocks? Akber, Jeffries, Dharmasiri 2002

27 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? INSERT AFKAR HERE

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31 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

32 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

33 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland

34 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation

35 Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation Non compacted fine grains NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

36 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Lawrence, Akber (to be finalised 2005) Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation Non compacted fine grains Non compacted boulders

37 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon is in air ? Total flow rate = 4000 m -3.s -1

38 NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon is in air ? Akber, Jeffries, Dharmasiri (2002)

39 NORM Dust Akber, Dharmasiri (1996) AMAD Next to the operating station 8.4  m 12 m away 5.9  m

40 NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

41 NORM External gamma radiation Sand Dune Abandoned tailings Mineral sand derivatives

42 NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic Cosmic radiation dose (nGy.h -1 ) Potassium concentration (%) Thorium concentration (ppm) Uranium concentration (ppm) External gamma dose (nGy.h -1 )

43 NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U  0.16 (H Total – 66)

44 NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U  0.16 (H Total – 66)

45 NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U  0.16 (H Total – 66) Akber, Lawrence, Bollhoefer, Martin 2004

46 NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U  0.16 (H Total – 66) Akber, Lawrence, Bollhoefer, Martin 2004

47 NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

48 NORM Measurement

49 NORM Measurement

50 NORM Measurement

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55 Riaz Akber


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