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Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact

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Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact Uranium mines and mills Bauxite mines Mineral sands Natural

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Handling NORM : Examples of work from uranium mining and other operations Riaz Akber contact NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

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238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

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238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

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238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series

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238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series 228 Ra 5.75 y 232 Th series

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238 U 4.47x10 9 y 226 Ra 1600 y 214 Pb 26.8 m 222 Rn 3.82 d 218 Po 3.1 m 234 Th 24.1 d 234m Pa 1.18 m 234 U 2.5x10 5 y 230 Th 7.5x10 4 y 206 Pb Stable 210 Pb 22.3 y 214 Bi 19.7 m 214 Po 164 µs 210 Bi 5.01 d 210 Po 138 d NORM – 238 U series 228 Ra 5.75 y 232 Th series 1 Bq (becquerel) = 1 Nuclear disintegration per second Sv (sievert), Gy (gray) : Units of radiation dose

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NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Typical 226 Ra activity concentration Water: m Bq.kg -1 Soil: Bq.kg -1 Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Typical 226 Ra activity concentration Water: m Bq.kg -1 Soil: Bq.kg -1 Activity Water Activity Soil Strong Absorption Weak Desorption Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered

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Spa waters Helidon 226 Ra activity concentration (Bq.L -1 ) 1.27, 1.22, 1.1, 0.62, 0.50

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Spa waters Helidon 226 Ra activity concentration (Bq.L -1 ) 1.27, 1.22, 1.1, 0.62, 0.50

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered 1.13 ± 0.02 Bq.L ± Bq.L -1 WATER

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered 911 ± 14 Bq.L ± 10 Bq.kg -1 SEDIMENT / SOIL 17 ± 2 Bq.L -1 Koulouris, Dharmasiri, Akber 1996

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Overland flow and ponding of water improves its quality – by removing radioactivity from aqueous to solid phase. Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Wetland Filtration Natural, Engineered Akber, Johnston, Hancock 1992 U Ra Mg

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application + H 2 O H2OH2O Application Soil surface Sub surface

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application + H 2 O H2OH2O Application Soil surface Sub surface

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NORM Aqueous – Solid phase Land Application 226 Ra 228 Ra Akber, Marten 1992 Outside Irrigated Land Irrigated Land

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NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn Soil surface Interstitial space Soil grain 2: Rn migration 3: Rn exhalation 1: Rn emanation

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2 1 0 Pb y 222Rn222Rn α 214Bi214Bi 214Pb214Pb 218Po218Po 226Ra226Ra 214Po214Po R a y R a y P b y NORM Radon – 222 Rn

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon comes out of the U rocks? Holdsworth, Akber 2004

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon comes out of the U rocks? Akber, Jeffries, Dharmasiri 2002

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? INSERT AFKAR HERE

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation

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Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation Non compacted fine grains NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground?

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon exhales from ground? Lawrence, Akber (to be finalised 2005) Vegetated or rehabilitated woodland Compacted with no vegetation Non compacted fine grains Non compacted boulders

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon is in air ? Total flow rate = 4000 m -3.s -1

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NORM Radon – 222 Rn How much radon is in air ? Akber, Jeffries, Dharmasiri (2002)

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NORM Dust Akber, Dharmasiri (1996) AMAD Next to the operating station 8.4 m 12 m away 5.9 m

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NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

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NORM External gamma radiation Sand Dune Abandoned tailings Mineral sand derivatives

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NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic Cosmic radiation dose (nGy.h -1 ) Potassium concentration (%) Thorium concentration (ppm) Uranium concentration (ppm) External gamma dose (nGy.h -1 )

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NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U 0.16 (H Total – 66)

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NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U 0.16 (H Total – 66)

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NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U 0.16 (H Total – 66) Akber, Lawrence, Bollhoefer, Martin 2004

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NORM External gamma radiation H Total = a C U + b C Th + c C K + H Cosmic C U = (A 1 H Total – A 2 ) C U 0.16 (H Total – 66) Akber, Lawrence, Bollhoefer, Martin 2004

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NORM in Water NORM in Air External gamma Measurement of NORM

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NORM Measurement

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NORM Measurement

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NORM Measurement

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Riaz Akber

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