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Evidence for Quarks Quark Composition of Hadrons [Secs 15.1 - 15.4 Dunlap]

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence for Quarks Quark Composition of Hadrons [Secs 15.1 - 15.4 Dunlap]"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence for Quarks Quark Composition of Hadrons [Secs 15.1 - 15.4 Dunlap]

2 By 1964 Particle classification became: Gauge Bosons FERMION BOSON gigi Not substantiated until 70s and 80s LeptonsBaryons Mesons HADRONS (S+E-W)LEPTONS (E-W)

3 The 1950s particle Explosion Young man, if I could remember the names of all these particles, I would have been a botanist Enrico Fermi In th 1950s the race was on to build larger and larger accelerators. Many physicists such as Fermi were alarmed to say the least. By the end of the 50s we had the: Then in 1964 the cascades were discovered The situation was getting out of hand – some solution had to be found

4 The quark or “straton” model or hadrons 1964. Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig tentatively put forth the idea of quarks. They suggested that mesons and baryons are composites of three quarks or antiquarks, called up, down, or strange (u, d, s) with spin 1/2 and fractional electric charge. u d s charges 2/3, -1/3, -1/3 Since the charges had never been observed, the introduction of quarks was treated more as a mathematical explanation. Later theoretical and experimental developments allow us to now regard the quarks as real physical objects, even though they cannot be isolated. Three Quarks for Muster Mark! James Joyce Finnegans Wake

5 Evidence for quark structure [1] Neutral pi meson production: [2] Neutron and proton magnetic moments are not = the nuclear magneton as predicted by the Dirac equation for point fermions. Such reactions are difficult to explain if it is assumed that the proton is like the electron a fundamental structureless particle.

6 Other evidences for quark structure Deep Inelastic Scattering of electrons The proton has excited states

7 Particle classification with 3 quarks Gauge Bosons FERMION BOSON Quarks gigi Not substantiated until 70s and 80s LeptonsBaryons Mesons HADRONS (S+E-W)LEPTONS (E-W)

8 Mathematics – SU(2) symmetry special unitary group Triplet Singlet Di-Nucleon Deuteron Bound

9 mathematics – SU(3) symmetry plet octet Decuplet singlet The strange quark is seen as being the identical particle to the up and down quark – just in a different quantum state. Rotations in quark space do not change the strong interaction

10 SU3 found in experiment PROTON FAMILY = OCTET J π = 1/2+ HEAVY PROTON FAMILY = dicuplet J π =3/2+

11 PROTON OCTET FAMILYHEAVY PROTON – DECUPLET FAMILY In reality the strange quark “s” has a heavier intrinsic mass

12 Discovery of the Omega Minus The bubble chamber photograph shown was taken in 1964 – It shows the production of the first observed Omega Minus

13 A look quick look at all the quarks u d s c Q=+2/3 Q= -1/3 b t 1 st Gen 2 nd Gen 3 rd Gen

14 SU3 symmetry for q-q system

15 The Pi- Meson Family (of nine)

16 The energies of the Pi-meson family The higher mass of the K- mesons and Eta meson results from the larger mass of the strange quark

17 ParticleSymbol Anti- particle Makeup Rest mass MeV/c 2 SCBLifetimeDecay Modes Pion π+π+ π-π- udud139.6000 2.60 x10 -8 μ+νμμ+νμ Pion π0π0 Self135.0000 0.83 x10 -16 2γ Kaon K+K+ K-K- usus493.7+100 1.24 x10 -8 μ + ν μ, π + π 0 Kaon K0sK0s K0sK0s 1*497.7+100 0.89 x10 -10 π + π -,2π 0 Kaon K0LK0L K0LK0L 1*497.7+100 5.2 x10 -8 π+e-νeπ+e-νe Eta η0η0 Self2*548.8000<10 -18 2γ, 3μ Eta prime η 0' Self2*958000...π+π-ηπ+π-η Rho ρ+ρ+ ρ-ρ- udud770000 0.4 x10 -23 π+π0π+π0 Rho ρ0ρ0 Selfuu, dd770000 0.4 x10 -23 π+π-π+π- Omega ω0ω0 Selfuu, dd782000 0.8 x10 -22 π+π-π0π+π-π0 Phi φ Selfs1020000 20 x10 -23 K + K -,K 0 K 0 D D+D+ D-D- cdcd1869.40+10 10.6 x10 -13 K + _, e + _ D D0D0 D0D0 cucu1864.60+10 4.2 x10 -13 [K,μ,e] + _ D D+sD+s D-sD-s cscs1969+1 0 4.7 x10 -13 K + _ MESONS

18 ParticleSymbolMakeup Rest mass MeV/c 2 SpinBS Lifetime (secon ds> Decay Modes Proton p uud938.31/2+10Stable... Neutron n ddu939.61/2+10920pe - ν e Lambda Λ0Λ0 uds1115.61/2+1 2.6 x10 -10 pπ -, nπ 0 Sigma Σ+Σ+ uus1189.41/2+1 0.8 x10 -10 pπ 0, nπ + Sigma Σ0Σ0 uds1192.51/2+16x10 -20 Λ0γΛ0γ Sigma Σ-Σ- dds1197.31/2+1 1.5 x10 -10 nπ - Delta Δ ++ uuu12323/2+10 0.6 x10 -23 pπ + Delta Δ+Δ+ uud12323/2+10 0.6 x10 -23 pπ 0 Delta Δ0Δ0 udd12323/2+10 0.6 x10 -23 nπ 0 Delta Δ-Δ- ddd12323/2+10 0.6 x10 -23 nπ - Xi Cascade Ξ0Ξ0 uss13151/2+1-2 2.9 x10 -10 Λ0π0Λ0π0 Xi Cascade Ξ-Ξ- dss13211/2+1-2 1.64 x10 -10 Λ0π-Λ0π- Omega minus Ω-Ω- sss16723/2+1-3 0.82 x10 -10 Ξ 0 π -, Λ 0 K - BARYONS


20 Adding the charmed quark

21 Particle classification became Gauge Bosons FERMION BOSON Quarks gigi Not substantiated until 70s and 80s Leptons Baryons Mesons HADRONS (S+E-W)LEPTONS (E-W)

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