# Moles 1.Stoichiometry - “measuring matter” –Water contamination –Radon Levels –Hormone levels in milk –Impurities in computer chips Stoichiometry.

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Moles 1.Stoichiometry - “measuring matter” –Water contamination –Radon Levels –Hormone levels in milk –Impurities in computer chips Stoichiometry

Moles H vs He He vs C C vs Mg Atomic Mass

Moles Mole- Standard Number of atoms or molecules used by chemists 1 mole = 6.022 X 10 23 atoms/molecule Amadeo Avagadro’s Number

Moles

Stoichiometry GramsMolesAtoms 1 g H1 mole H6.02 X 10 23 atms 2 g H 12 g C 3 mol C 36.12 X10 23 atm He

GramsMolesAtoms 14 g N 42 g N 48 g C 2 mol Na 3 mol Be 36.12 X10 23 atm O 30.10 X10 23 atm Ca 12.04 X10 23 atm Si

Moles Stoichiometry Rounding – 1 decimal place Iron 55.845 g/mole  55.8 g/mol Sulfur 32.066 g/mole  32.1 g/mol Oxygen 15.9994 g/mole  16.0 g/mol

Moles Grams Moles Atoms 1.How many Na atoms are present in 11.5 g of Na? (Ans: 3.01 X 10 23 atoms) 2.How many C atoms are present in 18.0 g? (Ans: 9.03 X 10 23 C) GMA

Moles 3.What is the mass of 1.20 X 10 24 atoms of Na? (Ans: 45.8 grams) 4.What is the mass of 1.51 X 10 23 atoms of Be?(Ans: 2.26 g) 5.Start with 0.854 mole V 6.Start with 0.0570 mole Rn GMA

Moles How many grams and atoms are in 0.333 moles of Sulfur?

Moles 1.Molar Mass = mass of one mole 2.Units – grams/mole or amu (atomic mass units) 3.What is the molar mass of: 1.C 2.O 2 3.BaCl 2 Molar Mass

Moles Molar Mass 4.What is the molar mass of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ? (187.5 g/mol) 5.What is the molar mass of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ? (342.3 g/mol)

Warm-Up Find everything else if given: a)0.589 g Ne b)4.567 X 10 24 atoms of K c)0.00845 mol of Ba Calculate the molar mass of: a)KrF 4 b)Al(NO 3 ) 3 c)Calcium hydroxide

Warm-Up Find everything else if given: a)0.589 g Ne (0.0292 mol, 1.76 X10 22 atoms) b)4.567 X 10 24 atoms of K (7.58 mol, 297 g) c)0.00845 mol of Ba (1.16 g, 5.09 X10 21 atoms) Calculate the molar mass of: a)KrF 4 (159.8 g/mol) b)Al(NO 3 ) 3 (213.0 g/mol) c)Calcium hydroxide (74.1 g/mol)

Moles 1.Monoatomic Elements (C, Fe, Au) GMA 2.Molecules and Ionics (H 2 O, CaCl 2, O 2 ) GMMA 3. You may see “Formula Units” instead of “Molecules” for Ionic compounds GMMA

Moles

Grams Moles Molecules Atoms 1 mole of Na 2 mole of Na 1 mole of H 2 O 1 mole of CH 4 3 mole of CH 4 GMMA

Moles 1.How many calcium and chlorine atoms are in 200.0 grams of Calcium Chloride? 2.How many hydrogen and oxygen atoms are in 3.60 grams of H 2 O? (Ans: 2.41 X 10 23 atoms H) GMMA

Moles 3.Given 0.345 mol of Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3, find everything else. 4.Given 3.01X10 24 molecules of SO 3, find everything else. 5.Given 9.42 X10 22 molecules of C 2 H 4, find everything else. GMMA

Moles 6. What is the mass of 3.01 X 10 22 molecules of Iron(III)Bromide? (Ans: 14.8 g) GMMA

Moles 1.Given 0.810 g of Mg, find moles and atoms. (0.0333 mol, 2.01X10 22 atoms) 2.Given 3.47 X 10 22 atoms of fluorine, find grams and moles. (1.10 g. 0.0576 mol) 3.How many carbon atoms are in 36.0 grams of C 2 H 6 ? (Ans:1.45 X 10 24 atoms of C) 4.How many carbon atoms would be needed to weigh the same as one Titanium atom?

Moles 1.How many carbon atoms are in 36.0 grams of carbon? (1.81 X 10 24 ) 2.How many carbon atoms are in 36.0 grams of C 2 H 6 ? (Ans:1.45 X 10 24 atoms of C) Mixed Examples

Moles Warm-Up Problems (find everything else) a) 10.0 g C b) 10.0 g C 2 H 6 c) 4.00 X 10 23 atoms of S d) 4.00 X 10 23 molecules of SO 2 e) 0.440 moles of SO 2 Mixed Examples

GramsMolesMoleculesAtoms 10.0 g C0.833========5.02 X 10 23 10.0 g C 2 H 6 0.3332.01 X 10 23 4.02 X 10 23 C 12.1 X 10 23 H 21.3 g S0.664========4X10 23 S 42.6 g SO 2 0.6644X10 23 SO 2 4 X 10 23 S 8 X 10 23 O 28.2 g SO 2 0.44 SO 2 2.65 X 10 23 2.65 X 10 23 S 5.30 X 10 23 O 164.1 g/mol197.0 g/mol234.0 g/mol 71.0 g/mol106.8 g/mol

Moles 1. Definition - % of the elements in a compound by mass 2.Class Example Girls12 Boys13 Percent Composition

Moles 1.What is the % composition of CaCl 2 ? (Ans: 36.1 %, 63.9%) 2.What is the % composition of C 2 H 5 OH? (Ans: 52.2 %, 13.0 %, 34.8 %) 3.What is the % composition of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ? (Ans: 15.8 %, 28.1 %, 56.1 %) Percent Composition

Moles 1.Definition – The simplest ratio of the elements in a compound 2.Class with 6 girls, 9 boys Empirical Formula

Moles 3.Examples FormulaEmpirical Form. C 2 H 2 Al 4 S 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 24 O 12 Empirical Formula

Moles 1.What is the EF of a compound that has 0.900 g Ca and 1.60 g Cl? Rules - Go to moles - Divide by the smaller Empirical Formula

Moles 2. What is the EF of a compound that is 40.0 % C, 6.67 % H and 53.3 % O? 3.What is the EF of a compound that is 66.0 % Ca and 34.0% P? 4.What is the EF of a compound that is 43.7 % P and 56.3 % O? Empirical Formula

a.Write the formula of calcium nitrate. b.Calculate the percent composition of calcium nitrate. (24.4% Ca, 17.1% N, 58.5% O) c.A compound was analyzed and found to contain 13.5 g Ca, 10.8 g O, and 0.675 g H. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound? (CaO 2 H 2 or Ca(OH) 2 ) d.A compound is 69.6% manganese, the rest is oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula.

Moles 1.Empirical – Only tells you the ratios of the elements 2.Molecular – Tells you the true number of each element Molecular Formula

Moles EFMF CH 2 OCH 2 O (30 g/mol) C 2 H 4 O 2 (60 g/mol) C 3 H 6 O 3 (90 g/mol) C 4 H 8 O 4 (120 g/mol) Molecular Formula

Moles 1.What is the MF of benzene if it has an EF of CH and a molar mass of 78.0 g/mol? 2.What is the MF of a compound if it has an EF of AgCO 2 and a molar mass of 304.0 g/mol? Molecular Formula

Moles 3.What is the MF of a compound that is 40.9% C, 4.58 % H and 54.5 % O? It has a molar mass between 350 and 360 g/mol. 4.What is the MF of a compound that contains 4.90 grams of N and 11.2 g of O? The molar mass is about 90 g/mol. Molecular Formula

Moles 1.33.9% Cu, 14.9% N, 51.2% O 2.57.5% Na, 40.0% O, 2.5% H 3.36.1% Ca, 63.9% Cl 4.70% Fe, 30% O 5.32% Fe, 27.6% C, 3.5% H, 36.8% O 6.37.4% Cu, 62.6% Cl 7.80.2% Ba, 18.7% O, 1.2% H 8.25.9% N, 74.1% O 9.60% Ti, 40% O 10.39.8% Cu, 20.1% S, 40.0% O

CaOKMnO 4 NH 3 N 2 H 4 O 3 AlI 3 H 2 SO 4 KINaNO 3 SO 2 H 3 PO 4 K 2 Cr 2 O 7 C 8 H 8 O 3 N 2 H 8 SO 4 As 2 O 3 AgNO 3

C 2 H 2 O 4 C 8 H 16 O 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 Cl 2 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 N 2 O 4

Moles 15gramsmolatoms a)0.3900.0171 X 10 22 b)1.57 X 10 6 3.01 X 10 4 1.81 X 10 28 c)43.2 (Boron)4.002.41 X 10 24 d)4.25 X 10 -6 1.09 X 10 -7 6.55 X 10 16 e)0.1236.08 X 10 -3 3.66 X 10 21 17a) 41.0 gb) 400. gc) 3.67X10 6 g 19a) 10.0 molb) 122 molc) 3.16X10 -23 mol 26. a) 267.6 g/mol b) 119.0 g/mol c) 318.0 g/mol d) 103.8 g/mol e) 220.0 g/mol

Moles 30GramsMolesMolecules a)1763.672.21 X 10 24 b)0.1733.75 X 10 -3 2.26 X 10 21 c)3.0 X 10 -20 2.5 X 10 -22 150 d)49.70.1418.50 X 10 22 32.46.7 g/mol 46 a) 3.2%, 19.4%, 77.4% b) 38.8%, 61.2% c) 12.7%, 19.7%, 67.6% d) 12.2%, 5.2%, 27.0%, 56.6%

Moles 4863.6%, 6.0%, 21.2%, 9.3% 57. a) SiO 2 b) C 2 Sc) X 5 Y 6 d) Fe 2 C 3 O 9 59.K 2 S 2 O 3 61.NH 3 C 3 64.Na 2 CrO 4 67.C 3 N 3 O 9 H 5 69. N 4 S 4 72.C 6 H 12 O 6 88.K 2 C 2 O 6

Moles Calculate the empirical formula of a compound that contains 55.3 grams of potassium, 14.6 g of phosphorus, and 30.1 g of oxygen.

Moles 1.Make up a compound containing 3 elements 1.No subscripts >5 2.Use both even and odd numbers 3.Ex: C 3 O 5 F 2 2.Calculate the percent composition of your imaginary compound. Also calculate the molar mass. Write these numbers down on an index card. 3.Give your card to another group. See if they can determine the formula of your compound.

Moles Beware the Mole Man

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