Presentation on theme: "CODE OF PRACTICE AND COMMODITIES STANDARDS, PRESENTED AT NIGERIA AFLATOXIN WORKSHOP BY STANDARDS ORGANISATION OF NIGERIA."— Presentation transcript:
CODE OF PRACTICE AND COMMODITIES STANDARDS, PRESENTED AT NIGERIA AFLATOXIN WORKSHOP BY STANDARDS ORGANISATION OF NIGERIA
Standards Organisation of Nigeria Established by decree 56 of 1971 The apex standards body in Nigeria Carries out standardisation and conformity assessment programmes Advises Nigerian Government at all levels on issues of standards and quality assurance Represents Nigeria in International, regional Standards bodies etc
Introduction In today’s changing world, safety and security have generally remained basic human needs. Ensuring the safety of food has been a major focus of international and national action over the last few years. Both microbiological and chemical hazards are of concern.
Introduction Among chemical hazards, the contamination of food and feed by aflatoxin (toxic metabolites of fungi), fishery products by phycotoxins (toxins produced by algae) and edible plant species by their plant toxins have been recently characterized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as significant sources of food-borne illnesses, Of these three categories of natural toxins, most attention has been directed to aflatoxin until now.
Introduction In several parts of the world, aflatoxin currently represent a major food safety issue. The knowledge that aflatoxin can have serious effects on humans and animals has led many countries to establish regulations on aflatoxin in food and feed in the last decades to safeguard the health of humans, as well as the economic interests of producers and traders
Basis for Regulating Aflatoxins The primary scientific basis for the establishment of regulations is Risk Assessment Risk Assessment - scientific evaluation of the probability of occurrence of known or potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to food-borne hazard
Basis for Regulating Aflatoxins Various factors play a role in decision-making processes focused on setting limits for aflatoxin. These include: scientific factors to assess risk (such as the availability of toxicological data), food consumption data, knowledge about the level and distribution of aflatoxin in commodities, and Analytical methodology. Economic factors, such as commercial and trade interests and food security issues, also have an impact
Legal and Regulatory Environment Aflatoxin regulations have been established in many countries during the past decades and newer regulations are still being issued, difficulties not withstanding,
Standards' Approach Towards the Control of Aflatoxin In Nigeria, Nigerian Industrial Standards/Nigerian Code of Practice are the main framework for the control of Aflatoxins in Food. As a direct response to the emerging food safety challenges, focus of food standardisation world wide has shifted from food composition to food safety. All new food Standards in Nigeria have a section for Chemical contaminants and Aflatoxins are specified, where relevant
SON is the Process of adopting/adapting all existing and relevant Codex Codes of Practice for the Prevention and Elimination of aflatoxin. Also work on Codes of Practices Targeted at the prevention and Reduction of Aflatoxins in Sesame Seeds and Shea Nut/Butter are at advance stage of completion Old standards are being revised to adequately address the issue of aflatoxin and Aflatoxins in Particular.
Maximum Limits Specified In all our new and revised standards the maximum limits for Aflatoxins are: Total Aflatoxins – 4 mg/kg (ppb) Aflatoxin B1 - 2mg/kg (ppb)
Nigerian Industrial Standards with specifications for Aflatoxin CodeNumberaflatoxinAflatoxin Standard for Maize GritNIS 718:2010 Fumonisin B1, B2 (ppb) (max): 3 Aflatoxin B1 (ppb) (max): 2 Standard for Kulikuli (Groundnut Cake) NIS 594:2008 Total aflatoxin (max): 4 ppb Aflatoxin B1 (max): <2 ppb Standard for Groundnut Seed NIS 491:2006 Yes. 20 ug/kg (max) in-shell and for kernels grades 1, 2, and 3. Standard for Maize GrainNIS 253:2003 Bieing reviewed. 4 ppb for total Aflatoxin and 2ppb for Aflatoxin B1 Standard for Soya Beans Flour NIS 342:1997 Aflatoxin mg/kg (max): 0.001. aflatoxin level (under review) Standard for Maize OilNIS 391:2000 Not mentioned Standard for Groundnut Oil NIS 388:2000 Not mentioned Sorghum GrainsNIS 328: 2003 10 ppb Millet GrainsNIS 467: 2003 10 ppb
Animal Feeds Specification for Pig FeedsNIS 20:2003 Specification for Poultry FeedsICS 67.120 Livestock Products Standard for Classification of Chicken Eggs and Egg Products NIS 512:2006 Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery ProductsNCP 24:2004Not mentioned. However, there is also no mention of fish feed quality—which would be logical place for aflatoxin/ aflatoxin to be mentioned.
Composite Flour NIS 294:2010 Total Aflatoxins-4ppb (under review) Food for Infants and Young Children-Infant formular NIS 255:2010 Total Aflatoxins-4ppb; M1 – 0.05ppb (under review) Food for Infants and Young Children-Iprocessed Cereals based Foods NIS 256:2010 Total Aflatoxins-4ppb; M1 – 0.05ppb (under review) Standard for Wheat Semolina NIS 396:2010 Total Aflatoxins-4ppb (under review)
Challenges Agencies charged with monitoring the conformity to set standards do not have adequate capacity to do that, Weak capacity for risk analysis Weak agricultural extension services to educate farmers/parkers GAP
Way Forward Nigeria dose not have its Aflatoxin level, further research for indigenous products is recommended. Examples Melon seed Bush mango National policies on Aflatoxin comprising of all stakeholders is recommended.