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Imperative Programming with Dependent Types Hongwei Xi University of Cincinnati.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperative Programming with Dependent Types Hongwei Xi University of Cincinnati."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Imperative Programming with Dependent Types Hongwei Xi University of Cincinnati

3 A Wish List We would like to have a programming language that should – be simple and general – support extensive error checking – facilitate proofs of program properties – possess correct and efficient implementation –......

4 Reality Invariably, there are many conflicts among this wish list These conflicts must be resolved with careful attention to the needs of the user

5 Advantages of Types Capturing errors at compile-time Enabling compiler optimizations Facilitating program verification Serving as program documentation

6 Limitations of (Simple) Types Not general enough – Many correct programs cannot be typed Not specific enough – Many interesting properties cannot be captured

7 Dependent Types Dependent types are types that are – more refined – dependent on the values of expressions Examples – int(i): singleton type containing only integer i – array(n): type for integer arrays of size n

8 Type System Design A practically useful type system should be – Scalable – Applicable – Comprehensible – Unobtrusive – Flexible

9 Xanadu Xanadu is a dependently typed imperative programming language with C-like syntax The type of a variable in Xanadu can change during execution The programmer may need to provide dependent type annotations for type- checking purpose

10 Early Design Decisions Practical type-checking Realistic programming features Conservative extension Pay-only-if-you-use policy

11 Examples of Dependent Types in Xanadu int(a): singleton types containing the only integer equal to a, where a ranges over all integers array(a): types for arrays of size a in which all elements are of type ‘a, where a ranges over all natural numbers

12 Examples of Dependent Types in Xanadu int(i,j) is defined as [a:int | i < a < j] int(a), that is, the sum of all types int(a) for i < a < j int[i,j), int(i,j], int[i,j] are defined similarly

13 A Xanadu Program {n:nat} unit init (int vec[n]) { var int ind, size;; size = arraysize(vec); invariant: [i:nat] (ind: int(i)) for (ind=0; ind { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/12/3367687/slides/slide_13.jpg", "name": "A Xanadu Program {n:nat} unit init (int vec[n]) { var int ind, size;; size = arraysize(vec); invariant: [i:nat] (ind: int(i)) for (ind=0; ind

14 A Slight Variation {n:nat} unit init (int vec[n]) { var nat ind, size;; size = arraysize(vec); for (ind=0; ind { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/12/3367687/slides/slide_14.jpg", "name": "A Slight Variation {n:nat} unit init (int vec[n]) { var nat ind, size;; size = arraysize(vec); for (ind=0; ind

15 Dependent Record Types A polymorphic type for arrays {n:nat} array(n) { size: int(n); data[n]: ‘a }

16 Binary Search in Xanadu {n:nat} int bs(key: int, vec: array(n)) { var: l: int [0, n], h: int [-1, n); m: int; x: float;; l = 0; h = vec.size - 1; while (l <= h) { m = (l + h) / 2; x = vec.data[m]; if (x < key) { l = m - 1; } else if (x > key) { h = m + 1; } else { return m; } } return –1; }

17 Dependent Record Types A polymorphic type for 2-dimensional arrays: {n:nat} array2(m,n) { row: int(m); col: int(n); data[m][n]: ‘a }

18 Dependent Record Types A polymorphic type for sparse arrays: sparseArray(m,n) { row: int(m); col: int(n); data[m]: list }

19 Dependent Union Types A polymorphic type for lists: union list with nat = { Nil(0); {n:nat} Cons(n+1) of ‘a  list(n) } Nil: list(0) Cons: {n:nat} ‘a * list(n) -> ‘a list(n+1)

20 Dependent Union Types A polymorphic type for binary trees: union tree with (nat,nat) = { E(0,0); {sl:nat,sr:nat,hl:nat,hr:nat} B(sl+sr+1,1+max(hl,hr)) of tree(sl,hl)  ‘a  tree(sr,hr) }

21 Typing Judgment in Xanadu  e 

22 Typing Assignment     e        x  e    x  unit 

23 Typing Loop          e      bool  i     i    e       unit             while  e   e     i    unit 

24 Reverse Append in Xanadu (‘a) {m:nat,n:nat} list(m+n) revApp (xs: list(m),ys: list(n)) { var: ‘a x;; invariant: [m1:nat,n1:nat | m1+n1=m+n] (xs: list(m1), ys: list(n1)) while (true) { switch (xs) { case Nil: return ys; case Cons (x, xs): ys = Cons(x, ys); } } exit; /* can never be reached */ }

25 Constraint Generation in Type- checking The following integer constraint is generated when the revApp example is type-checked: m:nat,n:nat, m1:nat,n1:nat, m1+n1=m+n, a:nat, m1=a+1 |= a+(n1+1)=m+n

26 Conclusion It is still largely an elusive goal in practice to verify the correctness of a program It is therefore important to identify those program properties that can be effectively verified for realistic programs

27 Conclusion We have designed a type-theoretic approach to capturing simple arithmetic reasoning The preliminary studies indicate that this approach allows the programmer to capture many more properties in realistic programs

28 Future Work Adding more program features into Xanadu Constructing a compiler for Xanadu that can compile dependent types from source level into bytecode level Incorporating dependent types into Java and …


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