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Introduction to TCP/IP TCP / IP –including 2 protocols Protocol : = a set of rules that govern the communication between different devices Protocol : =

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to TCP/IP TCP / IP –including 2 protocols Protocol : = a set of rules that govern the communication between different devices Protocol : ="— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to TCP/IP TCP / IP –including 2 protocols Protocol : = a set of rules that govern the communication between different devices Protocol : = a set of rules that govern the communication between different devices –TCP Transmission Control Protocol –IP Internet Protocol Communication protocol for network

2 TCP –responsible for dividing the message into packets verifying the correct delivery of packets from node to node –if unsuccessful >>> re-send / retransmission –until correctly and completely received –provide reliability

3 IP –responsible for routing the packets from node to node reassembling the packets back into the message

4 TTL –Time to live packet sending > with header and data –header : contain information of destination address and some control fields one of the control fields is TTL –TTL : initialised by the sender to a particular value (e.g. 64) –the number decreased by 1 when the packet passes through 1 router –if TTL reach 0, the packet discard and sender re- send –safety mechanism - prevent packets from travelling forever

5 TCP / IP – = 2 protocol ? –No !!! TCP / IP is a suit of protocols –FTP / SMTP / SNMP / Telnet / TCP / UDP / IP / PPP / SLIP …. Etc –each protocol with particular feature

6 IP Address –= internet protocol address –identify every computer in any network –must be unique within a network –32 bits binary number (IPv4) –Written as four 8-bit numbers –Expressed in decimal form (each part range from )

7 Each IP address has 2 parts –network address To identify a network in a larger network (Internet) –host address identify a particular device in the network that is : its unique address in the network –Using Subnet mask to identify the network and host address

8 Subnet Mask –Class A : IP : SM : Network : Host : networks = ( 256 – 2 ) hosts = ( 256 * 256 * 256 – 2 )

9 Subnet Mask –Class B : IP : SM : Network : Host : networks = ( 256 * 256 – 2 ) hosts = ( 256 * 256 – 2 )

10 Subnet Mask –Class C : IP : SM : Network : Host : networks = ( 256 * 256 * 256 – 2 ) 254 hosts = ( 256 – 2 )

11 For a LAN –the IP assignment is controlled by the administrator may be DHCP (dynamic) or static / fixed IP For the network “INTERNET” –The IP assignment is issued by InterNIC Internet Network Information Centre –also responsible for the registering and maintaining the.com,.net (Top-Level Domain names) of the WWW


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