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Introduction to Networking Andrew Hamilton TJ IT Technician
Networks Connect Computers together Share resources – Printers – Storage – Internet Access – Applications
LANs vs WANs Local Area Network – Internal to one site Wide Area Network – Connect multiple sites together The Internet – A very large WAN
Layer 1: Physical The actual paths for data to travel on Multitude of standards – Ethernet (Copper or Fiber) – Wireless – ATM – Dialup – DSL – MoCA
Layer 2: Data Link Operates based on MAC Address – Wireless Access Points (WAPs) – Switches – Hubs – Bridges
Layer 3: Network Layer Packets Operates on Internet Protocol (IP Address) – IPv4 – IPv6 Routers L3 Switches Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) Firewalls
Layer 3: IP Addressing IPv4 ( ) IPv6 – 2001:468:cc0:1600:0:c6ff:fe26:102f – 2001:468cc0:1600::c6ff:fe26:102f Netmasks – – 2001:468:cc0:1600::/64
Layer 3: Reserved Addrs IPv4 – /8, /12, /16 – /4 (multicast) IPv6 – Fe80::/10 (link local) – Fc00::/7 (unique local addresses)
Layer 4: Transport Layer Protocols – User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Ports – Permanent (0-1023) – Registered ( ) – Dynamic ( )
Upper Layers Layer 5: Session Layer Layer 6: Presentation Layer Layer 7: Application Layer “Layer 8”: User Layer “Layer 9”: Religious/Political Layer
Utilities ipconfig / ifconfig ping / ping6 arp nslookup tracert / traceroute(6)
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