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Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 09 Network Protocols
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 2 Outline Protocol: Set of defined rules to allow communication between entities Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Transmission Control Protocol / Internetworking Protocol (TCP/IP) TCP over wireless Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Summary
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 3 OSI Model Physical Data link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7 7 layer OSI model
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 4 Physical Layer Functions Establishment and termination of a connection to a communication medium Process for effective use of communication resources Conversion between representation of digital data Physical characteristics of interfaces and media Representation of bits, transmission rate, synchronization of bits. Link configuration Physical topology and transmission mode
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 5 Data Link Layer Functions Provides functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities. Responds to service requests from the network layer and issues requests to the physical layer. Concerned with: Framing Physical addressing Flow Control Error Control Access Control
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 6 Network Layer Functions Provides for transfer of variable length sequences from source to destination via one or more networks Responds to service requests from the transport layer and issues requests to the data link layer Concerned with: Logical addressing Routing
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 7 Transport Layer Functions Provides transparent data transfer between end users Responds to service requests from the session layer and issues requests to the network layer. Concerned with: Service-point addressing Segmentation and reassembly Connection control; Flow Control Error Control
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 8 Session Layer Functions Provides mechanism for managing a dialogue between end-user application processes Responds to service requests from the presentation layer and issues requests to the transport layer Supports duplex or half- duplex operations. Concerned with: Dialogue control Synchronization
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 9 Presentation Layer Functions Relieves application layer from concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation with end-user systems Responds to service requests from the application layer and issues requests to the session layer Concerned with: Translation Encryption Compression
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 10 Application Layer Functions Interfaces directly to and performs common application services for application processes Issues service requests to the Presentation layer Specific services provided: Network virtual terminal File transfer, access and management Mail services Directory services
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 11 TCP/IP Protocol TCP/IP protocol consists of five layers The lower four layers correspond to the layer of the OSI model The application layer of the TCP/IP model represents the three topmost layers of the OSI model
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 12 TCP/IP Protocol stack OSI layersTCP/IP layers Application Presentation Session FTP, Telnet, SMTP DNS Application Transport TCPUDP Network Data link Physical Lower level vendor implementations IP OSPF IGMPDHCPICMP
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 13 Internet Protocol (IP) Provides connection-less, best-effort service for delivery of packets through the inter-network Best-effort: No error checking or tracking done for the sequence of packets (datagrams) being transmitted Upper layer should take care of sequencing Datagrams transmitted independently and may take different routes to reach same destination Fragmentation and reassembly supported to handle data links with different maximum – transmission unit (MTU) sizes
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 14 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Companion protocol to IP Provides mechanisms for error reporting and query to a host or a router Query message used to probe the status of a host or a router Error reporting messages used by the host and the routers to report errors
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 15 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Used to maintain multicast group membership within a domain Similar to ICMP, IGMP query and reply messages are used by routers to maintain multicast group membership Periodic IGMP query messages are used to find new multicast members within the domain A member sends a IGMP join message to the router, which takes care of joining the multicast tree
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 16 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Used to assign IP addresses dynamically in a domain Extension to Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) Node Requests an IP address from DHCP server Helps in saving IP address space by using same IP address to occasionally connecting hosts
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 17 Internet Routing Protocols Intradomain Routing Distance Vector Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Distance information about all the nodes is conveyed to the neighbors. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Based on shortest path algorithm, sometimes also known as Dijkstra algorithm Hosts are partitioned in to autonomous systems (AS) AS is further partitioned in to OSPF areas that helps boarder routers to identify every single node in the area Link-state advertisements sent to all routers within the same hierarchical area Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Intra-autonomous systems communicate with each other using path vector routing protocol
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 18 TCP Application Layer Top three layers (session, presentation, and application) merged into application layer Routing using Bellman-Ford Algorithm 6 Root 2 4 3 2 0 1 3 1 3 4 3 Abstract model of a wireless network in the form of a graph A routing table maintained at each node, indicating the best known distance and next hop to get there Calculate w(u,v), is the cost associated with edge uv Calculate d(u), the distance of node u from a root node For each uv, find minimum d(u,v) Repeat n-1 times for n-nodes
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 19 TCP (ctd) To Node01234 Pass 00 Pass 1032 Pass 207312 Pass 304312 Pass 404312 To Node01234 Pass 0* Pass 1*00 Pass 2*2040 Pass 3*3040 Pass 4*3040 1 2 1 3 1 3 4 6 3 Root Abstract model of a wireless network in the form of a graph 23 04 Successive calculation of distance D(u) from Node 0 8888 88 88 88 88 Predecessor from Node 0 to other network Nodes
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 20 Solutions for Wireless Environment Networking layering provides good abstraction Wireless networking interference limited. Information delivery capability depends on current channel quality Adoption in physical and link layer broadcast could lead to efficient resource usage Changes need to be made in MSs and mobile access points to ensure compatibility
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 21 End-to-End Solutions Internet employs TCP/IP protocol stack. Most of the applications require reliable transmission layer (mostly TCP) Wireless network must support existing applications Limitations of wired version of TCP Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Packet loss can occur because of random errors as well as due to congestion Decreases efficiency due to TCP’s Congestion avoidance Many other problems like mobility support demands modification in TCP
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 22 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Designed to address the unforeseen growth of the internet and the limited address space provided by IPv4 Features of IPv6: Enhanced Address Space: 128 bits long, can solve the problem created by limited IPv4 address space (32 bits) Resource Allocation: By using “Flow Label”, a sender can request special packet handling Modified Address Format: Options and Base Header are separated which speeds up the routing process Support for Security: Encryption and Authentication options are supported in option header
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 23 IPv4 Header Format Version (4 bits) Header length (4 bits) Type of service (8 bits) Total length (16 bits) Identification (16 bits)Flags (3 bits) Fragment offset (13 bits) Time to live (8 bits) Protocol (8 bits) Header checksum (16 bits) Source address (32 bits) Destination address (32 bits) Options and padding (if any)
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 24 IPv6 Header Format VersionTraffic ClassFlow Label Payload LengthNext Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address Data Address Space Resource Allocation Modified Header Format Support for Security
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 25 Format of IPv6 NameBitsFunction Version4IPv6 version number Traffic Class8Internet traffic priority delivery value Flow Label20Used for specifying special router handling from source to destination(s) for a sequence of packets Payload Length16, unsigned Specifies the length of the data in the packet. When set to zero, the option is a hop-by-hop Jumbo payload Next Header8Specifies the next encapsulated protocol. The values are compatible with those specified for the IPv4 protocol field Hop Limit8, unsigned For each router that forwards the packet, the hop limit is decremented by 1. When the hop limit field reaches zero, the packet is discarded. This replaces the TTL field in the IPv4 header that was originally intended to be used as a time based hop limit Source Address128The IPv6 address of the sending node Destination Address128The IPv6 address of the destination node
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 26 Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Expanded Addressing Capabilities Simplified Header Format Improved Support for Options and Extensions Flow Labeling Capabilities Support for Authentication and Encryption
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 27 Network Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 Dual IP-Stack: IPv4-hosts and IPv4-routers have an IPv6-stack, this ensures full compatibility to not yet updated systems IPv6-in-IPv4 Encapsulation (Tunneling): Encapsulate IPv6 datagram in IPv4 datagram and tunnel it to next router/host
Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing-An Zeng. All rights reserved. 28 IP and MAC Addresses for Personal Firewall
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