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Center for Autonomic Computing Intel Portland, April 30, 2010 Autonomic Virtual Networks and Applications in Cloud and Collaborative Computing Environments.

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Presentation on theme: "Center for Autonomic Computing Intel Portland, April 30, 2010 Autonomic Virtual Networks and Applications in Cloud and Collaborative Computing Environments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Center for Autonomic Computing Intel Portland, April 30, 2010 Autonomic Virtual Networks and Applications in Cloud and Collaborative Computing Environments Renato Figueiredo Associate Professor Center for Autonomic Computing ACIS Lab University of Florida

2 2 Outlook  Architecting autonomic virtual networks Isolation, security, encapsulation, dynamic configuration, migration Self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization  Applications in cloud and collaborative environments Virtual Private Clusters Social VPNs  Archer: a collaborative environment for computer architecture simulation  Ongoing/future work

3 3 3 Background Collaboration, entertainment: streaming, data sharing, games Resource aggregation: Cross-institution sharing, opportunistic computing, on-demand provisioning Public Internet NATNAT NATNAT Self-configuring End-to-end Virtual Private Network

4 4 Self-organizing virtual networks  Focus: Software overlays that provide virtual network infrastructure over existing Internet infrastructure  Why virtual? Support unmodified TCP/IP applications and existing Internet physical infrastructure Hide heterogeneity of physical network (firewalls, NATs), avoid IPv4 address space constraints  Why self-organizing? Autonomous behavior: low management cost compared to typical VPNs Decentralized architecture for scalability and fault tolerance

5 5 Virtual networking  Isolation: dealt with similarly to VMs Multiple, isolated virtual networks time-share physical network  Key technique: tunneling (VPNs)  Related work Grid computing  VNET (P. Dinda at Northwestern U.)  Violin (D. Xu at Purdue U.)  ViNe (J. Fortes at U. Florida)  PVC (F. Cappello at INRIA) “P2P” VPNs  Hamachi, tinc, Gbridge

6 6 The IP-over-P2P (IPOP) Approach  Isolation Virtual address space decoupled from Internet address space  Self-managing Self-organizing, self-healing topology  Decentralized – structured peer-to-peer (P2P)  No global state, no central points of failure Self-optimizing IP overlay routing  On-demand direct/relay connections Self-configuring decentralized NAT traversal

7 7 Use case scenarios  Sharing resources/services in a virtual end host VM provides isolation Virtual appliances provide software encapsulation  Distributed virtual appliance clusters Homogeneous software environment on top of heterogeneous infrastructure Homogeneous virtual network on top of wide-area, NATed environments Cross-institution collaboration; cloud-bursting

8 8 Example: virtual clusters Physical machines Switched network NOWs, COWs “WOWs” Wide-area Virtual machines (VMs) Self-organizing overlay IP tunnels, P2P routing Installation image Virtual machines VM image Local-area Physical machines Self-organizing switching (e.g. Ethernet spanning tree)

9 9 Use case scenarios  There are various successful overlays enabling peer-to-peer communication among users VoIP sessions over skype File transfers over bittorrent iChat (video, chat, desktop sharing)  Application (and/or platform) specific  Users: richer set of applications over a generic IP network for communication and collaboration But they don’t have public IPs, and don’t want to directly connect to all users – hence NATs And they don’t want to or know how to configure and discover network services manually

10 10 Example: Social VPNs Alice Carol Bob Social Network Web interface Social network (e.g. Facebook) Overlay network (IPOP) carol.facebook.ipop node0.alice.facebook.ipop Social Network API Social network Information system Alice’s public keys Bob’s public keys Carol’s public key Bob: browses Alice’s SMB share Alice’s services: Samba share RDP server VoIP, Chat Advertise to Bob, Carol

11 11 IP-over-P2P Tunneling  As in many other VPNs, use virtual network device to capture/inject IP (e.g. tap/tun) Tunnel IP over UDP or TCP  Unlike traditional VPNs, tunnels are not established by an administrator Rather, IPOP implements self-organizing techniques to discover, establish and maintain overlay links Each IPOP peer is capable of picking packets, injecting packets, and routing

12 12 Virtual network architecture Application VNIC Virtual Router Virtual Router VNIC Application Wide-area Overlay network Isolated, private virtual address space Unmodified applications Connect(,80) Capture/tunnel, scalable, resilient, self-configuring routing and object store

13 13 Bi-directional structured overlay (Brunet library) Constant number of edges (K) per node O((1/k)log2(n)) overlay hops Self-organizing topology Near edge Overlay router Overlay architecture Overlay router Shortcut (far) edge Ordered ID space

14 14 Abstract bi-directional communication channels Edges can use various transports: UDP; TCP; DTLS; Tunnel UDP/DTLS: NAT traversal “Tunnel” edge Overlay router Overlay Edges Overlay router UDP edge TCP edge

15 15 Reflection: learn NAT-mapped endpoints From public overlay peers Peers exchange “connect to me” through overlay Set up hole punching Self-configuring 2. Exchange learned Endpoint with peer NAT traversal 1. Reflection: udp://IP:port 3. Simultaneous open: NAT traversal

16 16 Greedy routing relies on consistent bi-directional ring topology Faults in structure due to routing outages, symmetric NATs Tunnel near edges Self-healing structure Peers exchange neighbor set Unavailable physical path Tunnel edge

17 17 Create direct edges based on traffic inspection O(log2(N)) -> O(1) Direct connection when NAT traversal possible Relay through a peer – “far” tunnel edge 2. Exchange learned Endpoint with peer Self-optimization 1. Reflection: udp://IP:port 3. Simultaneous open: NAT traversal

18 18 Bootstrapping New P2P node Forms a “leaf” connection with a well-known node Selected at random from list of “bootstrap” nodes Sends “Connect to me” CTM request addressed to itself Received by nearest neighbors Forwarder CTM request Received by left and right neighbors

19 19 Autonomous IP allocation  One P2P overlay supports multiple IPOP namespaces IP routing within a namespace  Each IPOP namespace: a unique string Distributed Hash Table (DHT) stores mapping  Key=namespace  Value=DHCP configuration (IP range, lease,...)  IPOP node configured with a namespace Query namespace for DHCP configuration Guess an IP address at random within range Attempt to store in DHT  Key=namespace+IP  Value=IPOPid (160-bit)  IP->P2P Address resolution: Given namespace+IP, lookup IPOPid

20 20 Avoiding overlay overheads VNIC Virtual Router Virtual Router VNIC Application Wide-area Overlay network Local Interface LAN Router NIC Application NIC Application

21 21 VN Interfaces ● Each machine has local VN Interface ● ARP, DHCP captured locally ● Router responds as gateway ● DHCP: DHT put/get

22 22 Supporting VN Routers ● Single VN (Router) for entire cluster ● Avoid need for VN software stack on end host ● Avoid VN overhead on LAN communication

23 23 VN Hybrid ● VN instance for each member in a cluster ● VN hosts in the same LAN bypass VN software stack

24 24 Autonomic features  Self-configuration [IPDPS’06, HPDC’06, PCgrid’07] Routing tables using structured P2P links NAT traversal, DHCP over DHT  Self-optimization [HPDC’06] Direct shortcut connections created/trimmed based upon IP traffic inspection for fast end-to-end IP tunnels Proximity neighbor selection based on network coordinate estimates for improved structured routing  Self-healing [HPDC’08] “Tunnel” edges created to maintain overlay structure to deal with routing outages and NATs/firewalls that are not traversable  VLAN routers, overlay bypass within VLAN [VTDC09, SC09]

25 25 Overlay security architecture  Abstract senders encapsulate security logic Supports both edge (point-to-point) and IPOP (end- to-end) authentication and encryption Public key infrastructure  Keys/certificates  Symmetric key exchange DTLS (Datagram TLS) library or native IPOP stack  UDP-based; amenable to NAT traversal  IPsec tunneling also supported

26 26 Performance  IPOP implementation C# user-level router Tap virtual network device Latency (ms)Bwidth (Mb/s)Mem (KB) Host0.27941n/a C0.347389988 C#0.3771621500 IPOP0.5228438312 IPOP sec0.755550976

27 27 Security management  Overlay point-to-point and/or end-to-end security need to be configured PKI management can be complex and error-prone  Certificate signing/distribution, revocation  Approach: leverage Web 2.0, social networking infrastructures for security management SocialVPN: enable point-to-point VPN connectivity among socially-networked peers GroupVPN: enable sharing of resources with all-to-all VPN connectivity within a group of users

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