Presentation on theme: "E-Commerce Infrastructure: The Internet, Web, and Mobile Platform"— Presentation transcript:
1E-Commerce Infrastructure: The Internet, Web, and Mobile Platform Chapter 3
2Learning Objectives Discuss the origins of the Internet Identify the key technology concepts behind the InternetDiscuss the impact of the mobile platform and cloud computingDescribe the role of Internet protocols and utility programsExplain the current structure of the InternetUnderstand the limitations of today’s Internet
3Questions What is the Internet? How is it different from other computer networks?
5Internet vs. WebThe Internet is an interconnected network of thousands of networks and millions of computers (sometimes called host computers) linking businesses, educational institutions, government agencies, and individualsThe Internet provides approximately 2.56 billion people around the world with services such as , apps, newsgroups, shopping, research, instant messaging, music, videos, and newsThe World Wide Web, or Web for short, is one of the Internet’s most popular services providing access to billions of Web pages that contain text, multimedia content, services, and hyperlinks to other pages
6The Evolution of the Internet Innovation phase ( )Fundamental building blocks are conceptualized and implementedLinked mainframe computers on different college campusesInstitutionalization phase ( )Large institutions such as the DoD and NSF provided funding and legitimizationUse steadily increasedCommercialization phase (1995-present)Private corporations began to take over and expand both the Internet backbone and local service to ordinary citizensCreated an online marketplace
7Development of the Internet Timeline (Table 3.2) Some examples of key developments include:1961, concept of packet switching is created1969, first packet-switched message is sent on ARPANET from UCLA to Stanford (Internet born)1972, is invented1974, TCP/IP inventedLate 1970s, PCs are invented1984, Domain Name System (DNS) system introduced1989, the Web is created1993, first graphical Web browser (Mosaic)1994, first banner ad (birth of e-commerce)1995, NSF privatizes the backbone (fully commercial Internet born)
8Key Internet Technology Components Packet switchingTCP/IP and domain namesInternet architecture and applicationsClient/server architectureMobile platformCloud computing
9Packet SwitchingPacket switching is a method of slicing digital messages into discrete units called packets, sending the packets along different communications paths, and then reassembling the message at the destination
10TCP/IPWhile packet switching was an enormous advance in communications capacity, there was no universally agreed upon method for breaking up digital messages into packets, routing them to the proper address, and then reassembling them into a coherent messageThe answer was to develop a protocolThe transmission control protocol (TCP) establishes the connections among sending and receiving machines, and makes sure that packets sent by one computer are received in the same sequence by the other, without any packets missingThe Internet protocol (IP) provides the Internet’s addressing scheme
11IP AddressesAn IPv4 Internet address is a 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate decimal numbers marked off by periods, such asEach of the four decimal numbers can range from zero to 255This IPv4 addressing scheme supports up to about four billion unique addresses (2 to the 32nd power)A new version, called IPv6, was developed to expand the number of addresses availableIt uses 128-bit addresses so it can support up to 3.4 x 1038 addresses, many more than IPv4
13Domain NamesMost people cannot remember 32-bit (or 128-bit) numbers, so an IP address can be represented by a natural language convention called a domain nameThe Domain Name System (DNS) allows expressions such as drake.edu to stand for a numeric IP addressWeb pages use domain names as part of their unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
14Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) An example URL would be:This can be interpreted as:protocol://domain/path/file.extensionDomains are classified most commonly as either .com, .org, .net, .edu, .gov, .milDomains outside the US often include a country classification such as .uk (United Kingdom) or .ca (Canada) at the end of the URL
16Easy to expand capacity Less vulnerable than centralized computing architecturesProcessing load is balanced over many powerful smaller computers
17The New Client: The Mobile Platform In a few years, the primary means of accessing the Internet worldwide will be through highly portable smartphones and tablet computers, and not traditional desktop or laptop PCsIn 2013, there are an estimated 4.3 billion worldwide mobile phone users, with 247 million in the USSmartphones are disruptive because they do not use the same processors, operating systems, and storage devices that PCs useThe mobile platform has profound implications for e-commerce because it influences how, where, and when consumers shop and buy
18The Internet “Cloud Computing” Model: Software and Hardware as a Service Cloud computing refers to a model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power and software applications over the InternetTraditionally, users would purchase hardware and then install software on their own machinesCurrently, cloud computing is the fastest growing form of computing, with an estimated market size in 2013 of over $130 billion
19Cloud Computing Benefits and Risks Radically reduces the cost of building and operating Web sites because the necessary hardware infrastructure and services can be licensed from Internet service providers at a lower costIndividuals can use much less-expensive tablet computers or smartphones for e-commerce activitiesCorporations can significantly cut their hardware and software costs (infrastructure costs), and they don’t have to hire a large IT staffA risk is that firms may become totally dependent on their cloud service providers
20Who Governs the Internet? It is often claimed that the Internet is governed by no one, but this is not entirely trueThe Internet is tied to a complex web of governing bodies, national legislatures, and international professional societiesAmong the governing bodies of the Internet are:The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)The Internet Society (ISOC)The Internet Governance Forum (IGF)The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
21Changes in Internet Governance The US Department of Commerce (DoC) originally created ICANN with the intent that it take temporary control of the Domain Name System and the 13 root servers that are the heart of the Internet addressing schemeBeginning in 2000, ICANN and the DoC suggested they would turn over control of the DNS to some unspecified international bodyThe US changed its policy in June 2005 when it was announced that the DoC would retain oversight over the root serversIn 2014 it was announced that the US is again considering passing control of ICANN to a global governance organizationWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of making this change?
22Limitations of the Current Internet Much of the Internet’s current infrastructure is several decades oldIt suffers from a number of limitations, including:Bandwidth limitationsQuality of service limitationsNetwork architecture limitationsWired InternetOne proposed solution is Internet2 which is an advanced networking consortium of more than 350 member institutions all working in partnership to facilitate the development, deployment, and use of revolutionary Internet technologies
23The Internet of Things (IoT) Internet technology is spreading beyond the desktop, laptop, and tablet computers, and beyond the smartphone, to consumer electronics, electrical appliances, cars, medial devices, utility systems, machines of all types, and clothingIPv6 provides sufficient addresses to connect a vast array of new devicesPredictions indicate that there could be up to 100 billion uniquely identifiable objects connected to the Internet by 2020What are the benefits and risks for the IoT?