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Academy Conference 2010 IPv6 Survival Kit

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1 Academy Conference 2010 IPv6 Survival Kit
Dr. Jim Bergquist Lakes Country Service Cooperative August 2010

2 IPv6 Survival Kit Session Goals
Brief overview of IPv6 topics to build confidence in configuring IPv6 Explore ways in which IPv4 and IPv6 can coexist on devices Use Packet Tracer to build, configure and troubleshoot a simple IPv6 network Take away knowledge, tips and resources for effectively adding IPv6 content to Discovery 4 and Exploration 4 Provide your students with fun and interesting facts about this important protocol

3 A big “Thank you” to … Michael McKeever, Computer Networking and Security Instructor, Santa Rosa Junior College, Petaluma, CA Dallas Shiroma, Manager of Emerging Technologies, Pacific Center for Advanced Technology Training, Honolulu, HI

4 Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space
… and other fun stuff

5 Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space
128 bit addresses 2 128 is a very large number Fill here Hollow Earth-sized container Assign one IPv6 address per grain of sand How many grains of sand would be needed to use all IPv6 addresses? Fill Earth-sized containers with the sand If you assigned one IPv6 address to a grain of sand, how many grains of sand would be needed to use all possible IPv6 address numbers? Start by filling an Earth-sized container… Sand Grain  Earth drawing credit:

6 Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space
The filled Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto) Our Solar System Blue dots are Earth- sized containers We would need enough Earth-sized containers to circle our Solar system 50 times at its outer diameter, which is Pluto’s orbit. If you would like to see the calculation, The size of sand grains vary. So the calculation results in 20 to 50 times around the Earth at Pluto’s orbit Based on image from public image gallery at

7 Features Enhanced by IPv6
See Chapter 7 of Exploration, Accessing the WAN, Chapter 6 of Discovery, Designing and Supporting Computer Networks Address autoconfiguration Plug and Play networking with wide variety of devices Connectivity to roaming mobile devices Built-in Security – Security is easier Better reliability through multihoming hosts More efficient route aggregation Simpler packet header Many devices and apps already support IPv6

8 IPv6 Address Format, Types and Scopes
Just what we need to know

9 IPv6 Address Format 128 bits separated into eight blocks of 16 bits, as hex: FC00:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A In each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed: FC00:00D3:0000:0000:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A FC00:D3:0:0:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A Adjacent zeroes can be compressed (once): FC00:D3::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A IPv6 addresses are 128 bits, grouped as eight blocks of 16 bits. In hex notation, it is eight groups of four digits Leading zeros in a block can be removed, as in the third bullet point.

10 Prefix Length, Allocation of Bits
Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64 Prefix length (number of network bits) is 64 Same notation as CIDR in IPv4, no subnet masks 16 subnet bits, (/49 to /64) given to a site – 65,535 LANs! Usually 64 bits are used for hosts in IPv6 IPv6 uses CIDR notation, as IPv4 does. IPv6 does NOT use subnet masks.

11 Types of IPv6 Addresses Unicast (one to one) Also:
Multicast (one to many) Loopback (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1) Anycast (one to “nearest,” not widely used) No broadcasts in IPv6 To focus on the material we need for Packet Tracer labs, we will work only with unicast addresses in this session. Designers of IPv6 addressed known vulnerabilities of IPv4. One of those known vulnerabilities is broadcast storms. If you eliminate the use of broadcast addresses, then you eliminate the possibility of broadcast storms.

12 Unicast IPv6 Address Scopes
Link-local addresses—only on single link, not routed FE80 prefix Unique-local addresses—routed within private network FC00 prefix Global unicast addresses—globally routable 2001 prefix currently being issued 64 bit host portion We will point out each type of address when it occurs by noticing the prefix.

13 IPv6 Address Assignment
Often, it does the work for us

14 IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration
Static assignments are also possible Host automatically configures its own link-local address With link-local address, a host discovers connected routers to obtain a global prefix A host then builds its own global unicast address This is how a host can obtain an IPv6 address automatically. Three steps are involved. Details are provided in the handout, in which you and your students can manually build an EUI address using the method of stateless autoconfiguration and compare it to the address created by a Physical host or Packet Tracer host.

15 Stateless Autoconfiguration Process
Uses MAC Address 00 90 27 FF FE 17 FC 0F 000000U0 Where U= 1 = Unique 0 = Not Unique 02 U = 1 48 bit MAC Address 64 bits become part of IPv6 address

16 Stateless Autoconfiguration
Only the network part of the address is supplied in the ipv6 address command Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#int fa0/1 Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8::/64 eui-64 Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable Router(config-if)#no shut When configuring the interface, only the network portion is supplied in the command. Stateless autoconfiguration is used on interfaces that have MAC addresses. The ipv6 enable command automatically configures an IPv6 link-local unicast address on the interface while also enabling the interface for IPv6 processing.

17 Stateless Autoconfiguration
Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link-local address and global unicast address Router#sho ipv6 int bri FastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down] FastEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C02 2001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02 The router automatically generates its link-local address (FE80). The globally routable address is generated by stateless autoconfiguration (2001). Notice that the show command includes “ipv6”

18 Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing
Hosts should have globally routable addresses created with stateless autoconfiguration Use 2001 prefix Use /64 eui-64 to create them Serial links between routers should not use globally routable addresses Use FC00 prefix and static addressing Use a prefix length /64 However, the prefix length could also be, for example, /112

19 Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing
Static addresses between routers Stateless autoconfiguration for hosts Note to Presenter: The PT file IPv6rip.pkt can be opened to show the configurations and the results of the ping. This example uses IPv6 RIP static addresses are used between the routers, stateless autoconfig for the hosts The FC00 prefix indicates that these are unique-local addresses, not globally routable.

20 Commands for Students to Compare

21 Commands for Students to Compare
show ip interface brief show ipv6 interface brief show ip route show ipv6 route show ip protocols show ipv6 protocols Before we look at some working examples, let’s compare some differences between IPv4 and IPv6 commands Alert your students that they need to use the IPv6 version of commands to see IPv6 configurations and routing tables. The differences in the routing protocols will be shown in the Packet Tracer examples.

22 Ping Command for IPv6 Cisco routers, Packet Tracer routers and Packet Tracer PCs use ping Windows XP uses ping6 Packet Tracer PCs and Windows XP uses ipv6config There is one difference in the ping command for IPv6. Windows XP uses ping6 for testing IPv6 networks. (Not on slide)- The ping ipv6 command works, too. If used, the router attempts to resolve hostnames into IPv6 addresses before trying to resolve them into IPv4.

23 Configuring IPv6 RIP Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4
Note to Presenter: RIPng (“Next Generation”) is a name used to describe IPv6 RIP. Cisco does not have a command called RIPng, although some operating systems (Junos) do. The Cisco global command is “ipv6 router rip CIRCUS”, where CIRCUS is a process name you define. Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4

24 Global Commands Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing (enable IPv6)
Router(config)#ipv6 router rip CIRCUS (define a routing process called CIRCUS) ipv6 unicast-routing enables IPv6 on the router. A process name, CIRCUS, is defined for the IPv6 RIP on the router.

25 Interface Commands- Auto Config
Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8:2:3::/64 eui-64 Router(config-if)#ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable Router(config-if)#no shut The router is now configured with IPv6 RIP on fa0/0 Repeat for other involved interfaces Ensure that the PCs are set for Auto Config in the Config Tab The IPv4 network command is not used The same process name is used to enable IPv6 RIP on interfaces. No network command is needed with IPv6 RIP. NOTE to Presenter: I removed the FYI about the line command to set a static address on the PC, because PT is not handling static addresses for PCs reliably yet. Here is an example, though, for reference: Note: Packet Tracer PC line command for static IPv6 address assignment: PC> ipv6config FC00:1::2/112 FC00:1::1

26 IPv4 and IPv6 Co-existence
Students will ask about IPv4 to IPv6 communication. This section has one example showing a dual stack network. Configuring Dual Stack

27 Dual Stack Example Dual stack means configuring IPv4 and IPv6 on router interfaces and PCs No special router commands needed Works on any router that supports IPv6 Main tasks: Configure IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on appropriate interfaces Enable RIP and IPv6 RIP routing protocols (or OSPF and OSPFv3) Note: The IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables are separate Note to Presenter: Open the file “Dual stack- both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt” to demonstrate pings that work, and those that do not work.

28 PC0 is a Dual Stack Host Ping from an IPv4 host to PC0 Destination

29 PC0 is a Dual Stack Host Ping from an IPv6 host to PC0 Destination

30 IPv4 Routing Table, Router1
Router1#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, … <output omitted> Gateway of last resort is not set R /24 [120/1] via , 00:00:04, Serial0/0/1 C /24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 C /24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1 R /24 [120/1] via , 00:00:05, Serial0/0/0 The IPv4 routing table shows only the IPv4 networks. The IPv4 “1” network is learned by RIP version 2.

31 IPv6 Routing Table, Router1
Router1#sho ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 6 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP C :DB8:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L :DB8:0:1:202:16FF:FE53:4601/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 R :DB8:0:7::/64 [120/1] via FE80::2D0:BCFF:FEAB:6681, Serial0/0/0 C FC00:0:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 L FC00:0:0:1::2/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0 The Ipv6 routing table shows only the IPv6 networks. The IPv6 “1” network is learned by IPv6 RIP.

32 Configuring Dual Stack - Lab
Open this lab with Packet Tracer 5.3 Work with a neighbor on questions that arise

33 ICMPv6 Packet Type Numbers
Let’s open any IPv6 network we have in Packet Tracer and look at some ICMPv6 packets. You can look at packet details with Packet Tracer

34 Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers
Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode Click a packet to see type number Router Advertisement (Neighbor Discovery)- 134 Specific to IPv6 Sent periodically to neighbors v6 Echo Request (ping)- 128 Compare with v4: Type 8 v6 Echo Reply (ping)- 129 Compare with v4: Type 0 Note to Presenter: If the OSPFv3 example is still running, use it and put Packet Tracer in Simulation mode. Filter packets to show only ICMPv6 The Neighbor Discovery packets are sent from routers with IPv6 enabled. Click a packet to show the type number. Start a ping and click one of those packets to see the type number. Type 134

35 IPv6 Modeling in Packet Tracer

36 IPv6 Modeling in Packet Tracer
In PT, click Help. In browser, click Modeling, Layer 3 IP Addressing topics Click Modeling, Routing IPv6 routing protocols

37 Links to Additional Information

38 Additional Information
Portals, Forums, information sites “IPv6” (go to) General IPv6 information, FAQ, links go6, (“The IPv6 portal”) (go to) Upcoming events, blog, wiki, newsletter, member area IPv6 Task Force (“The IPv6 Portal”) (go to) Introduction, news, pressroom, RSS, IPv6 Guide, and Portal The IPv6 Forum (go to) Events, news, book recommendations, government news, competitions, and an “IPv4 Exhaustion Counter”!

39 Additional Information
Useful RFCs and lists IETF RFC repository (go to) Find an RFC if you know its number list of IPv6 RFCs (go to) Excellent searchable list, including obsoleted RFCs Microsoft IPv6 implementation (go to) RFCs used to implement IPv6 in Windows 2003 Server and XP

40 Additional Information
Introduction to IPv6 – Why IPv6? (go to) Overview and In-depth sections Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to) Excellent source for learning and troubleshooting List of RFCs for IPv6 (go to) Useful for understanding Cisco IPv6 implementations A description of address types IPv6 Introduction video podcast by Darrel Root

41 Related Academy Conference Sessions

42 Related Academy Conference Session Material
IPv6 and Packet Tracer, Dr. Jim Bergquist, 2009 Getting Ready for IPv6, Dr. Ron Kovac and graduate students, 2010 IPv6 Survival Kit, Julian Carranza, 2010 IPv6 Survival Kit, Michael McKeever, 2010 Will include a lab for configuring NetLabs

43 List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer
From 2009 conference Stateless Autoconfiguration Stateless Autoconfig.pkt Build an IPv6 EUI-64 Address.doc (A separate activity) IPv6 RIP IPv6 RIP.pkt IPv6 OSPF IPv6 OSPF CCNP Lab 8-1.pkt Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packets Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types.doc (and answers) ICMPv4 ICMPv6 packets.pkt

44 List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer
Broken Networks 3 Router-IPv6 RIP-broken1.pkt IPv6 RIP-broken2.pkt Unconfigured Network Unconfigured.pkt (Configured.pkt included for reference) Dual Stack Dual stack-both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt Upgrade IOS for PT 2620XM to support IPv6 Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.doc Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router_ANSWERS.doc No pkt file

45 Obtaining Conference Materials
Go to Click the Files tab Select the + to expand the “2009USAcadConf” folder, OR Select the + to expand the “2010USAcadConf” folder (It will be posted after completion of all conferences) Download the files you want

46 Obtaining Conference Materials
Another method, for 2010 materials Login to the 2010 Virtual Academy Conference In the Resource Room, session materials are posted for each conference separately

47 Topics Not Covered Here …
… but check the additional resources I’ve referenced

48 Topics Covered in Other Resources
See the links to resources and additional information Why IPv6, and why not NAT? Time frame for implementation Details of the parts of the address Special addresses Type and scope of addresses Details of packet header Neighbor discovery

49 Topics Covered in Other Resources
See the links to resources and additional information IPv6 ACLs Security with IPv6 Mobility with IPv6 IPv4 to IPv6 migration: dual stack, tunneling, translation Current deployment status of IPv6 Some IPv6 sites on internet Tunneling

50 Q & A



53 FAQ Area Note to Presenter: In case people have questions, some of these slides may help

54 Where is IPv6 covered in Exploration?
Network Fundamentals 6.3.6 Routing Protocols and Concepts 1.1.3, 3.1.1, 5.1.1, , , LAN Switching and Wireless no coverage Accessing the WAN 7.0.1, 7.3, 7.5.1

55 Where is IPv6 covered in Discovery?
Networking for Home and Small Businesses No coverage Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP 4.1.6 Introducing Routing and Switching in the Enterprise 5.2.1 Designing and Supporting Computer Networks 6.3

56 What are the “Documentation” Addresses?
Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 range should be used only in examples given in documentation for networking scenarios or tutorials The IANA has decided to assign IPv6 addresses from the IPv6 prefix for the time being. That is equivalent to emptying one of the Earth-sized containers before starting on another one. There is a recommended prefix for use in documentation: 2001:DB8:: Real-life applications of IPv6 are gradually approaching. You can read about its use in a VPN application in Windows 7 Server in the link at the bottom.

57 Does BGP Support IPv6? The current version of BGP is BGP4
BGP4 does support IPv6 See

58 What IOS do I need to run IPv6?
You need 12.0(21)T, or later, or 12.2(2)T or later To find out when a command was introduced, see the Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to). Locate the command. The listing will show when it was introduced Also see Cisco IOS Software Release Specifics for IPv6 Features (go to) The Packet Tracer 2620XM router does not support IPv6 unless you upgrade the IOS image

59 How many IPv6 addresses can I configure?
Example, of IPv4 address and four IPv6 addresses, in addition to link-local address (not shown) Router#show run (part of output) interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address duplex auto speed auto ipv6 address 2001:1:1::/64 eui-64 ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2::1/112 ipv6 address FC00:1:3::1/112 ipv6 address FC00:1:4::1/112


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