1Academy Conference 2010 IPv6 Survival Kit Dr. Jim BergquistLakes Country Service CooperativeAugust 2010
2IPv6 Survival Kit Session Goals Brief overview of IPv6 topics to build confidence in configuring IPv6Explore ways in which IPv4 and IPv6 can coexist on devicesUse Packet Tracer to build, configure and troubleshoot a simple IPv6 networkTake away knowledge, tips and resources for effectively adding IPv6 content to Discovery 4 and Exploration 4Provide your students with fun and interesting facts about this important protocol
3A big “Thank you” to …Michael McKeever, Computer Networking and Security Instructor, Santa Rosa Junior College, Petaluma, CADallas Shiroma, Manager of Emerging Technologies, Pacific Center for Advanced Technology Training, Honolulu, HI
4Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space … and other fun stuff
5Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space 128 bit addresses2 128 is a very large numberFill hereHollowEarth-sizedcontainerAssign one IPv6 address per grain of sandHow many grains of sand would be needed to use all IPv6 addresses?Fill Earth-sized containers with the sandIf you assigned one IPv6 address to a grain of sand, how many grains of sand would be needed to use all possible IPv6 address numbers?Start by filling an Earth-sized container…SandGrain Earth drawing credit:
6Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space The filled Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto)Our Solar SystemBlue dots are Earth- sized containersWe would need enough Earth-sized containers to circle our Solar system 50 times at its outer diameter, which is Pluto’s orbit.If you would like to see the calculation,The size of sand grains vary. So the calculation results in 20 to 50 times around the Earth at Pluto’s orbitBased on image from public image gallery at
7Features Enhanced by IPv6 See Chapter 7 of Exploration, Accessing the WAN,Chapter 6 of Discovery, Designing and Supporting Computer NetworksAddress autoconfigurationPlug and Play networking with wide variety of devicesConnectivity to roaming mobile devicesBuilt-in Security – Security is easierBetter reliability through multihoming hostsMore efficient route aggregationSimpler packet headerMany devices and apps already support IPv6
8IPv6 Address Format, Types and Scopes Just what we need to know
9IPv6 Address Format128 bits separated into eight blocks of 16 bits, as hex:FC00:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5AIn each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed:FC00:00D3:0000:0000:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5AFC00:D3:0:0:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5AAdjacent zeroes can be compressed (once):FC00:D3::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5AIPv6 addresses are 128 bits, grouped as eight blocks of 16 bits.In hex notation, it is eight groups of four digitsLeading zeros in a block can be removed, as in the third bullet point.
10Prefix Length, Allocation of Bits Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64Prefix length (number of network bits) is 64Same notation as CIDR in IPv4, no subnet masks16 subnet bits, (/49 to /64) given to a site – 65,535 LANs!Usually 64 bits are used for hosts in IPv6IPv6 uses CIDR notation, as IPv4 does. IPv6 does NOT use subnet masks.
11Types of IPv6 Addresses Unicast (one to one) Also: Multicast (one to many)Loopback (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1)Anycast (one to “nearest,” not widely used)No broadcasts in IPv6To focus on the material we need for Packet Tracer labs, we will work only with unicast addresses in this session.Designers of IPv6 addressed known vulnerabilities of IPv4. One of those known vulnerabilities is broadcast storms. If you eliminate the use of broadcast addresses, then you eliminate the possibility of broadcast storms.
12Unicast IPv6 Address Scopes Link-local addresses—only on single link, not routedFE80 prefixUnique-local addresses—routed within private networkFC00 prefixGlobal unicast addresses—globally routable2001 prefix currently being issued64 bit host portionWe will point out each type of address when it occurs by noticing the prefix.
13IPv6 Address Assignment Often, it does the work for us
14IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration Static assignments are also possibleHost automatically configures its own link-local addressWith link-local address, a host discovers connected routers to obtain a global prefixA host then builds its own global unicast addressThis is how a host can obtain an IPv6 address automatically.Three steps are involved.Details are provided in the handout, in which you and your students can manually build an EUI address using the method of stateless autoconfiguration and compare it to the address created by a Physical host or Packet Tracer host.
15Stateless Autoconfiguration Process Uses MAC Address009027FFFE17FC0F000000U0Where U=1 = Unique0 = Not Unique02U = 148 bit MAC Address64 bits become part of IPv6 address
16Stateless Autoconfiguration Only the network part of the address is suppliedin the ipv6 address commandRouter(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#int fa0/1 Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8::/64 eui-64 Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable Router(config-if)#no shutWhen configuring the interface, only the network portion is supplied in the command.Stateless autoconfiguration is used on interfaces that have MAC addresses.The ipv6 enable command automatically configures an IPv6 link-local unicast address on the interface while also enabling the interface for IPv6 processing.
17Stateless Autoconfiguration Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link-local address and global unicast addressRouter#sho ipv6 int briFastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down]FastEthernet0/1 [up/up]FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C022001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02The router automatically generates its link-local address (FE80).The globally routable address is generated by stateless autoconfiguration (2001).Notice that the show command includes “ipv6”
18Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing Hosts should have globally routable addresses created with stateless autoconfigurationUse 2001 prefixUse /64 eui-64 to create themSerial links between routers should not use globally routable addressesUse FC00 prefix and static addressingUse a prefix length /64However, the prefix length could also be, for example, /112
19Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing Static addresses between routersStateless autoconfiguration for hostsNote to Presenter: The PT file IPv6rip.pkt can be opened to show the configurations and the results of the ping.This example uses IPv6 RIPstatic addresses are used between the routers, stateless autoconfig for the hostsThe FC00 prefix indicates that these are unique-local addresses, not globally routable.
21Commands for Students to Compare show ip interface brief show ipv6 interface briefshow ip route show ipv6 routeshow ip protocols show ipv6 protocolsBefore we look at some working examples, let’s compare some differences between IPv4 and IPv6 commandsAlert your students that they need to use the IPv6 version of commands to see IPv6 configurations and routing tables.The differences in the routing protocols will be shown in the Packet Tracer examples.
22Ping Command for IPv6Cisco routers, Packet Tracer routers and Packet Tracer PCs use pingWindows XP uses ping6Packet Tracer PCs and Windows XP uses ipv6configThere is one difference in the ping command for IPv6. Windows XP uses ping6 for testing IPv6 networks.(Not on slide)- The ping ipv6 command works, too. If used, the router attempts to resolve hostnames into IPv6 addresses before trying to resolve them into IPv4.
23Configuring IPv6 RIP Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4 Note to Presenter: RIPng (“Next Generation”) is a name used to describe IPv6 RIP. Cisco does not have a command called RIPng, although some operating systems (Junos) do. The Cisco global command is “ipv6 router rip CIRCUS”, where CIRCUS is a process name you define.Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4
24Global Commands Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing (enable IPv6) Router(config)#ipv6 router rip CIRCUS (define a routing process called CIRCUS)ipv6 unicast-routing enables IPv6 on the router.A process name, CIRCUS, is defined for the IPv6 RIP on the router.
25Interface Commands- Auto Config Router(config)#int fa0/0Router(config-if)#ipv6 enableRouter(config-if)#ipv6 addr2001:db8:2:3::/64 eui-64Router(config-if)#ipv6 rip CIRCUS enableRouter(config-if)#no shutThe router is now configured with IPv6 RIP on fa0/0Repeat for other involved interfacesEnsure that the PCs are set for Auto Config in the Config TabThe IPv4 network command is not usedThe same process name is used to enable IPv6 RIP on interfaces.No network command is needed with IPv6 RIP.NOTE to Presenter: I removed the FYI about the line command to set a static address on the PC, because PT is not handling static addresses for PCs reliably yet. Here is an example, though, for reference: Note: Packet Tracer PC line command for static IPv6 address assignment:PC> ipv6config FC00:1::2/112 FC00:1::1
26IPv4 and IPv6 Co-existence Students will ask about IPv4 to IPv6 communication. This section has one example showing a dual stack network.Configuring Dual Stack
27Dual Stack ExampleDual stack means configuring IPv4 and IPv6 on router interfaces and PCsNo special router commands neededWorks on any router that supports IPv6Main tasks:Configure IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on appropriate interfacesEnable RIP and IPv6 RIP routing protocols (or OSPF and OSPFv3)Note: The IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables are separateNote to Presenter: Open the file “Dual stack- both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt” to demonstrate pings that work, and those that do not work.
28PC0 is a Dual Stack HostPing from an IPv4 host to PC0Destination
29PC0 is a Dual Stack HostPing from an IPv6 host to PC0Destination
30IPv4 Routing Table, Router1 Router1#show ip routeCodes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, …<output omitted>Gateway of last resort is not setR /24 [120/1] via , 00:00:04, Serial0/0/1C /24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0C /24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1R /24 [120/1] via , 00:00:05, Serial0/0/0The IPv4 routing table shows only the IPv4 networks.The IPv4 “1” network is learned by RIP version 2.
31IPv6 Routing Table, Router1 Router1#sho ipv6 routeIPv6 Routing Table - 6 entriesCodes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIPC :DB8:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0L :DB8:0:1:202:16FF:FE53:4601/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0R :DB8:0:7::/64 [120/1] via FE80::2D0:BCFF:FEAB:6681, Serial0/0/0C FC00:0:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0L FC00:0:0:1::2/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0The Ipv6 routing table shows only the IPv6 networks.The IPv6 “1” network is learned by IPv6 RIP.
32Configuring Dual Stack - Lab Open this lab with Packet Tracer 5.3Work with a neighbor on questions that arise
33ICMPv6 Packet Type Numbers Let’s open any IPv6 network we have in Packet Tracer and look at some ICMPv6 packets.You can look at packet details with Packet Tracer
34Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation modeClick a packet to see type numberRouter Advertisement (Neighbor Discovery)- 134Specific to IPv6Sent periodically to neighborsv6 Echo Request (ping)- 128Compare with v4: Type 8v6 Echo Reply (ping)- 129Compare with v4: Type 0Note to Presenter: If the OSPFv3 example is still running, use it and put Packet Tracer in Simulation mode.Filter packets to show only ICMPv6The Neighbor Discovery packets are sent from routers with IPv6 enabled.Click a packet to show the type number.Start a ping and click one of those packets to see the type number.Type 134
38Additional Information Portals, Forums, information sites“IPv6” (go to)General IPv6 information, FAQ, linksgo6, (“The IPv6 portal”) (go to)Upcoming events, blog, wiki, newsletter, member areaIPv6 Task Force (“The IPv6 Portal”) (go to)Introduction, news, pressroom, RSS, IPv6 Guide, and PortalThe IPv6 Forum (go to)Events, news, book recommendations, government news, competitions, and an “IPv4 Exhaustion Counter”!
39Additional Information Useful RFCs and listsIETF RFC repository (go to)Find an RFC if you know its numbernetworksorcery.com list of IPv6 RFCs (go to)Excellent searchable list, including obsoleted RFCsMicrosoft IPv6 implementation (go to)RFCs used to implement IPv6 in Windows 2003 Server and XP
40Additional Information Introduction to IPv6 – Why IPv6? (go to)Overview and In-depth sectionsCisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to)Excellent source for learning and troubleshootingList of RFCs for IPv6 (go to)Useful for understanding Cisco IPv6 implementationsA description of address typesIPv6 Introduction video podcast by Darrel Root
42Related Academy Conference Session Material IPv6 and Packet Tracer, Dr. Jim Bergquist, 2009Getting Ready for IPv6, Dr. Ron Kovac and graduate students, 2010IPv6 Survival Kit, Julian Carranza, 2010IPv6 Survival Kit, Michael McKeever, 2010Will include a lab for configuring NetLabs
43List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer From 2009 conferenceStateless AutoconfigurationStateless Autoconfig.pktBuild an IPv6 EUI-64 Address.doc (A separate activity)IPv6 RIPIPv6 RIP.pktIPv6 OSPFIPv6 OSPF CCNP Lab 8-1.pktComparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 PacketsComparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types.doc (and answers)ICMPv4 ICMPv6 packets.pkt
44List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer Broken Networks3 Router-IPv6 RIP-broken1.pktIPv6 RIP-broken2.pktUnconfigured NetworkUnconfigured.pkt (Configured.pkt included for reference)Dual StackDual stack-both IPv6 and IPv4.pktUpgrade IOS for PT 2620XM to support IPv6Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.docUpgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router_ANSWERS.docNo pkt file
45Obtaining Conference Materials Go to https://cisco.webex.com/meet/kaldersoClick the Files tabSelect the + to expand the “2009USAcadConf” folder, ORSelect the + to expand the “2010USAcadConf” folder(It will be posted after completion of all conferences)Download the files you want
46Obtaining Conference Materials Another method, for 2010 materialsLogin to the 2010 Virtual Academy ConferenceIn the Resource Room, session materials are posted for each conference separately
47Topics Not Covered Here … … but check the additional resources I’ve referenced
48Topics Covered in Other Resources See the links to resources and additional informationWhy IPv6, and why not NAT?Time frame for implementationDetails of the parts of the addressSpecial addressesType and scope of addressesDetails of packet headerNeighbor discovery
49Topics Covered in Other Resources See the links to resources and additional informationIPv6 ACLsSecurity with IPv6Mobility with IPv6IPv4 to IPv6 migration: dual stack, tunneling, translationCurrent deployment status of IPv6Some IPv6 sites on internetTunneling
53FAQ AreaNote to Presenter: In case people have questions, some of these slides may help
54Where is IPv6 covered in Exploration? Network Fundamentals6.3.6Routing Protocols and Concepts1.1.3, 3.1.1, 5.1.1, , ,LAN Switching and Wirelessno coverageAccessing the WAN7.0.1, 7.3, 7.5.1
55Where is IPv6 covered in Discovery? Networking for Home and Small BusinessesNo coverageWorking at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP4.1.6Introducing Routing and Switching in the Enterprise5.2.1Designing and Supporting Computer Networks6.3
56What are the “Documentation” Addresses? Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 range should be used only in examples given in documentation for networking scenarios or tutorialsThe IANA has decided to assign IPv6 addresses from the IPv6 prefix for the time being. That is equivalent to emptying one of the Earth-sized containers before starting on another one.There is a recommended prefix for use in documentation: 2001:DB8::Real-life applications of IPv6 are gradually approaching. You can read about its use in a VPN application in Windows 7 Server in the link at the bottom.
57Does BGP Support IPv6? The current version of BGP is BGP4 BGP4 does support IPv6See
58What IOS do I need to run IPv6? You need 12.0(21)T, or later, or 12.2(2)T or laterTo find out when a command was introduced, see the Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to). Locate the command. The listing will show when it was introducedAlso see Cisco IOS Software Release Specifics for IPv6 Features (go to)The Packet Tracer 2620XM router does not support IPv6 unless you upgrade the IOS image
59How many IPv6 addresses can I configure? Example, of IPv4 address and four IPv6 addresses, in addition to link-local address (not shown)Router#show run (part of output)interface FastEthernet0/0ip addressduplex autospeed autoipv6 address 2001:1:1::/64 eui-64ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2::1/112ipv6 address FC00:1:3::1/112ipv6 address FC00:1:4::1/112