2 思科网络技术学院理事会. Objectives Explain the structure IP addressing and demonstrate the ability to convert between 8-bit binary and decimal numbers. Given an IPv4 address, classify by type and describe how it is used in the network Explain how addresses are assigned to networks by ISPs and within networks by administrators Determine the network portion of the host address and explain the role of the subnet mask in dividing networks. Given IPv4 addressing information and design criteria, calculate the appropriate addressing components. Use common testing utilities to verify and test network connectivity and operational status of the IP protocol stack on a host.
3 思科网络技术学院理事会. Course Index 6.1 IPv4 Addresses 6.2 Addresses for Different Purpose 6.3 Assigning Addresses 6.4 Is It On My Network? 6.5 Calculating Addresses 6.6 Testing the Network Layer 6.7 Lab and Activities
思科网络技术学院理事会 IPv4 Addresses
5 思科网络技术学院理事会 The Anatomy of an IPv4 Address 32bit Dotted Decimal Network and Host Portions
6 思科网络技术学院理事会 Knowing the Number – Binary to Decimal Conversion
7 思科网络技术学院理事会 Knowing the Number – Decimal to Binary Conversion
思科网络技术学院理事会 Addresses for Different Purpose
9 思科网络技术学院理事会 Types of Addresses in an IPv4 network Network address - The address by which we refer to the network. It is the lowest address is reserved for the network address. (All host bits is 0) Broadcast address - A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network. It is the highest address in the network range. (All host bits is 1) Host addresses - The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network.
10 思科网络技术学院理事会 Calculating Network, Hosts and Broadcast Addresses Network Prefixes Indicated by the Prefix Length The number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.
11 思科网络技术学院理事会 Calculating Network, Hosts, and Broadcast Addresses
12 思科网络技术学院理事会 Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast – Types of Communication
13 思科网络技术学院理事会. Limited Local broadcast address STOP
14 思科网络技术学院理事会. Directed broadcast address
15 思科网络技术学院理事会 Reserved IPv4 Address Range
16 思科网络技术学院理事会 Public address and private address Public Addresses Private address to ( /8) to ( /12) to ( /16) NAT Practice 6.2.5
20 思科网络技术学院理事会 Planning to Addresses the Network It’s a structure process, should be planned and documented. Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance The different types of hosts within a network hosts are associated with an IPv4 network by a common network portion of the address End devices for users Servers and peripherals Hosts that are accessible from the Internet Intermediary devices
21 思科网络技术学院理事会 Planning to Addresses the Network Planning to Addresses the Network Considerations include: Will there be more devices connected to the network than public addresses allocated by the network's ISP? Will the devices need to be accessed from outside the local network? If devices that may be assigned private addresses require access to the Internet, is the network capable of providing a Network Address Translation (NAT) service?
22 思科网络技术学院理事会 Static or Dynamic Addressing for End User Devices Addresses for User Devices Static Assignment of Addresses Dynamic Assignment of Addresses DHCP
23 思科网络技术学院理事会 Assigning Addresses to Other devices Addresses for Servers and Peripherals Addresses for Hosts that are Accessible from Internet Addresses for Intermediary Devices Routers and Firewalls
24 思科网络技术学院理事会 & Who Assigns the Different Addresses? The organization of address management
25 思科网络技术学院理事会 Overview of IPv6 IPv6 Features and Advantages 128-bit hierarchical addressing - to expand addressing capabilities Header format simplification - to improve packet handling Improved support for extensions and options - for increased scalability/longevity and improved packet handling Flow labeling capability - as QoS mechanisms Authentication and privacy capabilities - to integrate security
思科网络技术学院理事会 Is It On My Network?
27 思科网络技术学院理事会 The subnet mask - Defining the network and host portions
28 思科网络技术学院理事会 ANDing – What is in our network? When ANDing between the address and the subnet mask is performed, the result yields the network address. Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. An originating host use ANDing to determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway.
29 思科网络技术学院理事会 The ANDing Process An Exercise of ANDing
思科网络技术学院理事会 Calculating Addresses
31 思科网络技术学院理事会 Basic Subnetting Each interface on a router must have a unique network ID Create the subnets by using (borrow) one or more of the host bits as network bits. Subnets number=2^n (n = the number of bits borrowed) Host number= 2^n - 2 (n=the number of bits left for hosts)
32 思科网络技术学院理事会 Basic Subnetting Subnetting Example (4 networks)
33 思科网络技术学院理事会 Basic Subnetting Subnetting Example (8 networks)
34 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Dividing Networks into Right Sizes Step 1 Determine the Total Number of Hosts This includes end user devices, servers, intermediate devices, and router interfaces.
35 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Dividing Networks into Right Sizes Step 2 Determine the Number and Size of the Networks Consider the number of networks and the size of each required based on common groupings of hosts.
36 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Dividing Networks into Right Sizes Step 3 Allocating Addresses
37 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Dividing Networks into Right Sizes Subnetting – Spreadsheet, a helpful tool
38 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Subnetting a Subnet Subnetting a subnet, or using Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) was designed to maximize addressing efficiency
39 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Subnetting a Subnet VLSM Example In the example, using a standard subnetting (/26 prefix length) scheme would be wasteful.
40 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Subnetting a Subnet VLSM Example Using VLSM
41 思科网络技术学院理事会 Subnetting – Subnetting a Subnet VLSM Example Using VLSM
42 思科网络技术学院理事会 Determining the Network Address
43 思科网络技术学院理事会 Determining the Number of hosts
44 思科网络技术学院理事会 Determining Valid Addresses for Hosts
思科网络技术学院理事会 Testing the Network Layer
46 思科网络技术学院理事会 Ping – Testing the Local Stack Ping It is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. Pinging the Local Loopback ( ) A response from indicates that IP is properly installed on the host.
47 思科网络技术学院理事会 Ping gateway Testing connectivity to the local LAN
48 思科网络技术学院理事会 Ping remote host Testing connectivity to remote LAN
49 思科网络技术学院理事会 Traceroute (tracert) – Tesing the Path It takes advantage of Time to Live (TTL)
50 思科网络技术学院理事会 ICMPv4 – The Protocol Supporting Testing and Messaging Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMPv4) ICMP is the messaging protocol for the TCP/IP suite ICMP provides control and error messages It is actually a separate Layer 3 protocol of the TCP/IP suite ICMP messages that may be sent include: Host conformation Unreachable Destination or Service Time exceeded Route redirection Source quench