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IPv4 ADDRESSING and PACKET STRUCTURE. IPv4 Internet Protocol addressing version 4 (IPv4) is the basis of Internet. Every connected host has a four octet.

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Presentation on theme: "IPv4 ADDRESSING and PACKET STRUCTURE. IPv4 Internet Protocol addressing version 4 (IPv4) is the basis of Internet. Every connected host has a four octet."— Presentation transcript:

1 IPv4 ADDRESSING and PACKET STRUCTURE

2 IPv4 Internet Protocol addressing version 4 (IPv4) is the basis of Internet. Every connected host has a four octet address expressed in decimal: AAA.BBB.CCC.DDD For example: 66.102.7.104 (Google) A host can send a packet to an IP address and it will be delivered to the correct destination.

3 CLASSFUL ADDRESSING Under IPv4 addressing scheme (classful addressing), the class of the network may be A, B or C. The class effects how the four number IP address is intrepreted. For all classes, the last byte is limited between: 1 – 254 - 0: reserved for network address - 255: reserved for broadcast address

4 Network Address Host Address Host Address Host Address B Network Address Network Address Host Address Host Address Network Address Network Address Network Address Host Address A C

5 CLASS A (large network): the first byte identifies the network and the last 3 bytes represent an address range for hosts on the network. Byte 1: 1 – 126 Byte 2 and 3: 0 – 255 No. of hosts (max): 16,646,144 CLASS B (medium network): the first two bytes identify the network and the last 2 bytes represent an address for hosts on the network. Byte 1: 128 – 191 Byte 2 and 3: 0 – 255 No. of hosts (max): 65,024 CLASS C (small network): the first three bytes identify network and the last byte represent an address for hosts on the network. Byte 1: 192 – 223 Byte 2 and 3: 0 – 255 No. of hosts (max): 254 hosts CLASS D: Byte 1: 224 – 239 CLASS E: Byte 1: 240 – 255

6 Broadcast Address: broadcast address is intended to go to every host on the network. (host address bytes are replaced with 255 (all ones) Example: Class B network with a network address of 174.148.0.0 would have a broadcast address of 174.148.255.255

7 Network Address: is formed by replacing all host bytes with 0. Example: Class B IP address of 174.148.10.5, has network address of 174.148.0.0 Network Mask (netmask): a host must know if a received packet relates to the network to which the host is a member. Membership of a network is determined using netmask defined on every network host. netmask = all network bits set to 1, all hosts bits set to 0 Example: Class A = 255.0.0.0, Class B = 255.255.0.0

8 5 Different Classes of IP Address CLASS A 1.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 CLASS B 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255 CLASS C 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 CLASS D 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 CLASS E 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255

9 PRIVATE IP ADDRESS (are not used anywhere on public internet, reserved for private LANs) Network Class Network NumbersNetwork MaskNo. of NetworksNo. of Hosts per Network CLASS A10.0.0.0255.0.0.012616,646,144 CLASS B172.16.0.0 to 172.31.0.0 255.255.0.016,38365,024 CLASS C192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 255.255.255.02,097,151254 LOOPBACK (localhost) 127.0.0.0 to 127.0.0.7 255.255.255.0--


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