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MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646) Chapter 8 Managing Windows Server 2008 Network Services.

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Presentation on theme: "MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646) Chapter 8 Managing Windows Server 2008 Network Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646) Chapter 8 Managing Windows Server 2008 Network Services

2 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 2 Learning Objectives Understand IPv6 and IPv6 planning issues Install, configure, and troubleshoot DNS Implement Microsoft WINS Install, configure, and troubleshoot DHCP

3 Planning for IPv6 IPv4 –More commonly used today Understand IPv6 –In the future a transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is likely MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 3

4 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 IPv4 limitations –Uses 32-bit addresses (4 bytes) –Network security –Implementing more sophisticated routing and subnetting options Advantages of IPv6 compared to IPv4 –128-bit addresses (16 bytes) –IPsec use required for security –Nonrequired data stored in extension headers MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 4

5 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) Advantages of IPv6 compared to IPv4 (cont’d.) –Flow Label field for better packet flow handling by routers Quality of Service (QoS) –Simpler automatic address configuration –More compact and efficient routing tables through using route aggregation –Address Resolution Protocol replaced by Neighbor Discovery protocol MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 5

6 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) Address issues –IPv6 is unlikely to run out of available IP addresses because it enables addresses About 3.4 × –Leading zeros can be removed –Contiguous fields containing only zeros can be represented as two colons (::) –Enables the use of address prefixes MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 6

7 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) IPsec issues –IP security (IPsec) enables IP communications to be secured Authentication certificates and encrypting data –Mandatory in IPv6 Header issues –Header streamlined to contain only vital information –Optional information stored in one or more of six types of extension headers: Hop-by-hop, routing, fragment, authentication, encapsulating security payload, destination options MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 7

8 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 8 Figure 8-1 IPv4 packet header Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

9 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 9 Figure 8-2 IPv6 packet header Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

10 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) Quality of Service issues –Flow label field enables packet flow management for Quality of Service (QoS) at network routers –Advantages of QoS Simpler automatic address configuration –APIPA can be used: On private and enterprise networks using DHCPv6 Or a DNS server in coordination with DHCPv6 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 10

11 IPv4 Compared to IPv6 (cont’d.) Routing Tables –IPv6 enables routers to use global addresses on the Internet –Route aggregation Technique for organizing network routes hierarchically Address Resolution Protocol and Neighbor Discovery Protocol –Neighbor Discovery (ND) protocol Uses messages and other means to discover network computers’ and routers’ physical addresses and more MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 11

12 Types of IPv6 Packets Unicast –Identified by single address for a single interface (NIC) and transmitted point-to-point –Six types of IPv6 unicast addresses Anycast –Contains a destination address that is associated with multiple interfaces Multicast –Destination address associated with multiple interfaces –Directed to each interface with that address group MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 12

13 Types of IPv6 Packets (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 13 Table 8-1 IPv6 unicast address types

14 Implementing Microsoft DNS Domain Name System (DNS) –TCP/IP application protocol –Enables a DNS server to resolve domain and computer names to IP addresses Or IP addresses to domain and computer names DNS servers –Provide the DNS namespace for an enterprise MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 14

15 Implementing Microsoft DNS (cont’d.) Active Directory on a Windows Server 2008 network –Must have a DNS server on the network –Windows Server 2008 DNS most compatible with Active Directory Non-Microsoft versions of DNS –Do not offer the DNS replication advantages through Active Directory MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 15

16 Installing DNS Services DNS installed as a server role in Windows Server 2008 Activity 8-1: Installing DNS –Objective: Learn how to install DNS MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 16

17 Installing DNS Services (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 17 Figure 8-3 DNS Server information window Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

18 DNS Zones Zone houses tables of different types of resource records –Table called zone file or zone database Forward lookup zone –Links computer names to IP addresses Host record in IPv4 –Host address (A) resource record Host record in IPv6 –IPv6 host address (AAAA) resource record DNS server can have several forward lookup zones MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 18

19 DNS Zones (cont’d.) Reverse lookup zone –Holds the pointer (PTR) resource record –Contains the IP-address-to-host name Activity 8-2: Creating a Reverse Lookup Zone –Objective: Learn how to create a reverse lookup zone Activity 8-3: Manually Creating DNS Host Address A Resource Records –Objective: Create a Host Address A Resource Record MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 19

20 DNS Zones (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 20 Table 8-2 DNS resource records

21 Using the DNS Dynamic Update Protocol Dynamic DNS (DDNS) –Modern form of DNS –Enables client computers and DHCP servers to automatically register IP addresses DNS dynamic update protocol –Enables information in a DNS server to be automatically updated in coordination with DHCP Activity 8-4: Verifying the DNS Dynamic Update Configuration –Objective: Verify that DNS is configured to be dynamically updated using the DNS dynamic update protocol MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 21

22 Using the DNS Dynamic Update Protocol (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 22 Figure 8-8 Configuring a new host record Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

23 DNS Replication Primary DNS server –Main administrative server for a zone –Authoritative server for that zone –All changes to the zone must be made on that DNS server Secondary DNS server –Backup to primary server –Contains a copy of the primary DNS server’s zone database –Not used for administration MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 23

24 DNS Replication (cont’d.) Secondary DNS server (cont’d.) –Obtains copy through a zone transfer over the network –Vital services: Ensure a copy of the primary DNS server’s data, in case the primary server fails Enable DNS load balancing Reduce congestion in one part of the network Set up Microsoft DNS services on at least two DCs –Multimaster replication model enables you to replicate DNS information on each DC MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 24

25 Stub Zone Only the bare necessities for DNS functions: –SOA record zone –Name server (NS) records to identify authoritative servers –Record for name servers that are authoritative One common use –Help quickly resolve computer names between two different namespaces Create stub zone using the same steps as to create a primary or secondary zone MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 25

26 Additional DNS Server Roles DNS servers can play several specialized roles –Forward name resolution requests to a specific remote DNS server Root hint –Resource record to enable a DNS server to quickly find an authoritative DNS server in a zone that is not on the DNS server –Used to find an authoritative DNS server on the Internet General steps for configuring forwarders or root hints MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 26

27 Additional DNS Server Roles (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 27 Figure 8-10 DNS forwarder server Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

28 Additional DNS Server Roles (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 28 Figure 8-11 Sample preconfigured root hints Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

29 Additional DNS Server Roles (cont’d.) Caching server –Used to provide fast queries –Results of each query are stored in RAM –Provides fast response to users –Does not contain zone databases –Queries a primary or secondary DNS server and caches the results –Can reduce the number of secondary DNS servers MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 29

30 Using DNS to Balance Application Access DNS round robin –Effective way to help spread the load for frequently used applications that have their own data sets Examples: –Internet Information Services (IIS) for Web servers –Accounting applications in a large organization –Customer service data sets –Proxy servers –Resource records are created for two or more servers that have different IP addresses but are associated with the same host name MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 30

31 Using DNS to Balance Application Access (cont’d.) General steps to configure DNS round robin and netmask ordering –Open the DNS tool –Right-click the server –Click Properties on the shortcut menu –Click the Advanced tab –Ensure that the boxes are checked for Enable round robin and Enable netmask ordering –Click OK in the server Properties dialog box –Close the DNS tool MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 31

32 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 32 Figure 8-13 Configuring DNS round robin and netmask ordering Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

33 DNS Enhancements Full support for IPv6 Background zone loading –DNS server with large number of entries in its zones can load those entries as a background process DNS server can be housed on a Read Only Domain Controller DNS services implement the GlobalNames zone MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 33

34 Creating a DNS Implementation Plan Recommendations: –Implement Windows Server 2008 DNS servers instead of other versions of DNS –Consider developing a plan to implement IPv6 –Register external corporate namespace Ensure it conforms to domain naming standards –Consider using namespaces to represent natural organizational boundaries MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 34

35 Creating a DNS Implementation Plan (cont’d.) Recommendations (cont’d.): –Make sure the DNS servers on a private network are well secured –Plan to locate a DNS server across most site links –Create two or more DNS servers –When you have off-site links between different domains, designate one DNS server as a forwarder to reduce traffic over those links –Number of DNS servers that you set up can be related to your analysis of an organization MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 35

36 Creating a DNS Implementation Plan (cont’d.) Recommendations (cont’d.): –When using forwarding, DNS server must be capable of making recursive queries –Plan to migrate the WINS functions over to DNS –Branch location with an RODC needs local DNS services Make RODC a secondary DNS server –Use DNS round robin to distribute the load MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 36

37 Troubleshooting DNS Troubleshooting steps –Restarting the DNS Server and DNS Client services –Check most recent log errors relating to DNS Activity 8-5: Checking the DNS Server and Client Services –Objective: Verify that the DNS Server and Client services are started Activity 8-6: Checking Log Entries for DNS –Objective: Check the log information about possible DNS errors MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 37

38 Troubleshooting DNS (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 38 Figure 8-14 Viewing the status of the DNS Client and DNS Server services Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

39 Troubleshooting DNS (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 39 Table 8-3 Troubleshooting DNS server problems

40 Implementing Microsoft WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) –Register NetBIOS computer names and map them to IP addresses WINS parts –WINS server –WINS database Install WINS in Windows Server 2008 for NetBIOS name and IP lookup Does not have the same security as DDNS MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 40

41 Implementing Microsoft WINS (cont’d.) Activity 8-7: Installing WINS –Objective: Learn how to install WINS MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 41 Figure 8-17 Installing WINS Server Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

42 Implementing Microsoft DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) –Enables server to detect the presence of a new workstation and assign an IP address to that workstation –Enables a network or server administrator to save hours of time Scope –Range of contiguous addresses MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 42

43 Implementing Microsoft DHCP (cont’d.) Single Microsoft DHCP server supports –Dynamic configuration of DNS server forward and reverse lookup zone records –Up to 1,000 different scopes –Up to 10,000 DHCP clients Windows Server 2008 server –Configure in the role of a DHCP server using Microsoft DHCP services Additional features of a Microsoft DHCP server MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 43

44 Implementing Microsoft DHCP (cont’d.) Activity 8-8: Installing DHCP –Objective: Learn how to install DHCP MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 44 Figure 8-19 Specifying the IPv4 DNS Server settings Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

45 Configuring a DHCP Server Set up one or more scopes of contiguous address ranges Activate each scope Authorize the DHCP server Configure the DHCP server and its clients to automatically update DNS records –Not required, but saves time in managing DNS Activity 8-9: Configuring DHCP Scopes –Objective: Learn how to configure a DHCP scope MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 45

46 Configuring a DHCP Server (cont’d.) Activity 8-10: Configuring Automatic DNS Registration –Objective: Verify that a DHCP server is configured to automatically register IP addresses with a DNS server MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 46

47 DHCPv6 Support and Configuring IPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) –For networks that are working to implement IPv6 Stateful autoconfiguration –Computer or network device using IPv6 contacts a DHCP server for a leased address Stateless autoconfiguration –Computer or network device assigns its own IPv6 address Constructed from the MAC address of its NIC combined with the subnet designation obtained from the router MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 47

48 DHCPv6 Support and Configuring IPv6 (cont’d.) Activity 8-11: Configuring and Viewing an IPv6 Address –Objective: Learn how to configure IPv6 and to view an IPv6 address after it is configured MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 48

49 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 49 Troubleshooting DHCP Table 8-4 Troubleshooting a DHCP server

50 MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 50 Summary IPv6 has many advantages over IPv4 Three types of IPv6 packets DNS is used to resolve domain and computer names to IP addresses and vice versa Configure Dynamic DNS –Enable automated IP address registration in a coordinated way with a DHCP server DNS round robin and netmask ordering –Help balance the load on application servers

51 Summary (cont’d.) DNS enhancements in Windows Server 2008 –IPv6 support –Background zone loading –DNS on RODC –GlobalName zones Windows Server 2008 provides WINS for NetBIOS name and IP address lookup DHCP dynamically leases IP addresses to client computers MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646) 51


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