Presentation on theme: "IPv4 vs. IPv6 Anne-Marie Ethier Andrei Iotici "This report was prepared for Professor L. Orozco- Barbosa in partial fulfillment of the requirements for."— Presentation transcript:
IPv4 vs. IPv6 Anne-Marie Ethier Andrei Iotici "This report was prepared for Professor L. Orozco- Barbosa in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course ELG/CEG 4183“ March 12, 2002
Presentation Plan Introduction Major Advantages to IPv6 Addresses Packet Headers Autoconfiguration Neighbor Discovery Security Difficult transition
Introduction What is IP? The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. History In 1978, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) mandated the use of IPv4 for all “host-to- host” data exchange enabling IPv4 to become the mechanism for the military to create integrated versus stovepiped communications.
IP Address Shortage Proliferation of Internet devices: 405M mobile phones sold in 2000 1B+ by 2005 New emerging populations: China, Korea, Japan, India, Russia Solution = IPv6
Advantages to IPv6 Larger address space Reduce end-to-end delay Higher level of security Mobility No fragmentation Network autoconfiguration
Address Formats IPv4 32-bit Ex: 126.96.36.199 IPv6 128 bits Ex: 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A Or in compressed format: 1080::8:800:200C:417A
IPv6 Address Types Unicast Global aggregatable Site local Link local IPv4 compatible Anycast Multicast No more broadcast!
Unicast Addresses An address for a single interface Global:
Anycast An address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes.
Multicast An address for a set of interfaces (in a given scope) that typically belong to different nodes.
IPv4 Packet Header The basic IPv4 packet header has 12 fields with a total size of 20 octets (160 bits).
IPv6 Packet Header The basic IPv6 packet header has 8 fields with a total size of 40 octets (320 bits).
Neighbor Discovery Replaces ARP, ICMP, etc. Used for Router discovery Parameter/Prefix discovery Address resolution Address auto-configuration Can provide the means to renumber home subnets by forwarding solicitations to other subnets.
Autoconfiguration Used by Neighbour Discovery IPv6 no longer needs: ARP RARP DHCP BOOTP Stateless vs. Stateful
Security Authentication Header (AH) IPv6 datagrams not encrypted Keyed MD5 hashing algorithm proposed for standard authentication algorithm Eliminates IP spoofing Eliminates Host Masquarading Encapsulating Security Payload Header (ESP) Provides data integrity and confidentiality DES CBC encryption algorithm as standard (2 Modes) Tunnel Mode: Whole IP packet encrypted (including header) Transport Mode: Only payload encrypted
Difficult Transition Some have already begun experimenting with IPv6 on the internet Dual IP layer IPv6-over-IPv4 tunneling For timeline information of the transition efforts, browse http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ngtrans-charter.html
Questions Q1- What is the main reason for the switch from IPv4 to IPv6? A1- IP address shortage Q2 - Name 2 IPv6 address types and describe the reasons why they are used. A2 – Unicast: An address for a single interface. Anycast: An address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes. Assigning a unicast address to more than one interface makes a unicast address an anycast address Multicast: An IPv6 multicast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by the multicast address.
Questions(next) Q3 - Identify 2 differences between the IPv4 and IPv6 packet headers. A3 – IPv6IPv4 - 320 bits-160 bits - 8 fields- 12 fields - Flow Label- Checksum Q4 - Explain the concept of "tunneling” A4 - IPv6-over-IPv4 tunneling offers the possibility to encapsulate IPv6 packets within IPv4 headers in order to carry them over IPv4 routing infrastructures.
Questions(next) Q5 - Name the two main aspects in Internet security and explain how their uses in IPv6. A5 - Authentication Header (AH): only provides authentication of the data packet and not encryption. This is useful as a standalone when confidentiality is not essential and only authentication is important. Encapsulating Security Payload Header (ESP): provides data encryption.
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