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© 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved. IPv6- End User Perspective Fakhar Mirza CCNA, CCSP, CCIE Head of Technical, NETS.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved. IPv6- End User Perspective Fakhar Mirza CCNA, CCSP, CCIE Head of Technical, NETS."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved. IPv6- End User Perspective Fakhar Mirza CCNA, CCSP, CCIE Head of Technical, NETS

2 Agenda  Understanding need for IPv6  History of IPv4 Internet  Modern Internet  Needs of Modern Internet  Understanding IPv6 Direct/Indirect Communication  IPv6 Communication in LAN  IPv6 Communication over WAN  IPv6 Migration Strategies  Understanding Impact on Hardware and Software  Techniques of Partial and Full Migration  IPv6 Applications and Services  Enabling IPv6 in LAN  Enabling IPv6 in WAN  Using Applications and Services via IPv6

3 History of IPv4 Internet

4 History of Internet  Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense (ARPA)  Implemented the ARPAnet, the grandparent of today’s Internet  Packet switching  Digital data is sent in small packages called packets  Packets  Contain data, address information, error-control information and sequencing information  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  ensures that messages are properly sent from sender to receiver and that those messages arrive intact

5 Internetworking Protocol (IP) –De-facto Standard –Enabled the intercommunication of inter-organization and intra-organization packet based networks. The Internet was initially limited to universities and research institutions History of Internet … contd.

6 History of Internet - Addresses Addresses provide information on how to locate something, e.g., what route to take from here to there. Internet addresses combine –a routing portion, known as the network part –a name portion known as the host part How to split an Internet address into the network part and the host part has changed over time… How to get there from here!!!

7 Back when the TCP/IP protocols were first being designed, there was a big argument between fixed length and variable length addresses –Fixed length will always be limited But if you make it big enough, no one will be interested –Variable length will always take more cycles to process But there are tricks you can play to minimize the difference The decision was made for fixed, 32 bit addresses –Rumor has it, by a flip of a coin... History of Internet – Addresses … contd.

8 History of Internet – Internet Address Structure 32 bit unsigned integers –possible values 0 - 4,294,967,295 Typically written as a “dotted quad of octets” –four 8 bit values with a range of separated by “.” –For example, can be written as below

9 History of Internet … Internet Address Structure E E Originally, the architects of the Internet thought 256 networks would be more than enough –Assumed a few very large (16,777,216 hosts) networks Addresses were partitioned as below –8 bit network part, 24 bit host part

10 Original addressing plan too limiting –More than 256 networks with many fewer hosts than 2 24 Solution was to create address classes History of Internet – Classfull Addressing

11 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.11 Class A way too big –16 million hosts in a flat network is unthinkable Class B too big –Even host addresses is too many in most cases Imagine hosts all responding to a broadcast Class C too small –Most sites initially connecting to the Internet were large Universities, 256 was too small for them Need more flexibility! History of Internet – Internet Address The Problem

12 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.12 Classfull addressing was a better fit than original –but class A and B networks impossible to manage Solution was to partition large networks internally into sub-networks (subnets) History of Internet – Classless Addressing

13 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.13 Prefix /22 –1024 host addresses –announced as a single network (CIDR - Supernetting) Consists of 7 subnets – /25 – /26 – /26 – /24 – /24 – /25 – /25 History of Internet – Classless Addressing … contd. Subnetting/VLSM !!!

14 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.14 History of Internet … contd. Things went OK and life started sailing smooth … What happened then ?

15 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.15 Modern Internet

16 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.16 IPv4 addresses particularly limited Some U.S. universities and corporations have more IPv4 address space than some countries Upcoming demise of IPv4 address space predicted since mid 1990’s NAT + RFC 1918 has slowed that demise 90% of Fortune 1000 companies use NAT Modern Internet – New Problems … New Solutions

17 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.17 Modern Internet – New Problems … New Solutions Breaks globally unique address model Breaks address stability Breaks always-on model Breaks peer-to-peer model Breaks some applications Breaks some security protocols Breaks some QoS functions Introduces a false sense of security Introduces hidden costs

18 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.18 Mobile nodes must be able to move from router to router without losing end-to-end connection Home address: Maintains connectivity Care-of address: Maintains route-ability Mobile IP will require millions or billions of care- of addresses Modern Internet … Mobile IP

19 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.19 Every host is a client and a server That is, a consumer and a producer Modern Internet … Peer to Peer Networking P2P: A group of nodes actively participating in the computing process

20 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.20 Modern Internet … Many More Online Gaming Social Networking Internet Enabled Appliances Electrolux Screenfridge Samsung Digital Network Refrigerator Internet Enabled Auto-Mobiles GPS Maps Tracking etc. Internet Enabled ATMs Smart Sensors A never ending wish list …

21 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.21 Conclusion Seems like Internet Address is probably the most precious thing in this world and they are the species at brink … World Population = 6B+ IPv4 Addresses = 4.2B (including RFC1918, Class D and Class E) We need more addresses and IPv4 has 32bits fixed limit. Solution = IPv6

22 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.22 Conclusion … contd. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Deployed Address Size 32-bit number128-bit number Address Format Dotted Decimal Notation: Hexadecimal Notation: 3FFE:F200:0234:AB00: 0123:4567:8901:ABCD Prefix Notation /243FFE:F200:0234::/48 Number of Addresses 2 32 = 4,294,967, = 340,282,366,920, 938,463,463,374,607,431, 768,211,456

23 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.23 Conclusion … contd. World Population = 6B+ IPv6 Addresses = 340T+ For billions of new users For billions of new devices For always-on access For transparent Internet connectivity the way it was meant to be

24 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.24 IPv4 & IPv6 – Similarities and Differences

25 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.25 IPv4 & IPv6 – Similarities and Differences

26 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.26 IPv6 – New Features Header Length Increased 40B Hexadecimal Address Format “:” will be used as delimiter Yet easy for routers to process because: No more Checksum Calculations Fragment Free, auto PMTUD Broadcast free Introduction of Anycast (one to one-of-many) No need of Address Translation Also easy for humans to use Many ways to simply address writing Mask will officially be written in “/” format e.g. /64

27 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.27 IPv6 – Addressing Types of Addresses Unicast (one-to-one) Multicast (one-to-many) Anycast (one-to-one-of-many)

28 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.28 IPv6 – Addressing Representation All addresses are 128 bits Write as sequence of eight sets of four hex digits (16 bits each) separated by colons –Leading zeros in group may be omitted –Contiguous all-zero groups may be replaced by “::” –Only one such group can be replaced

29 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.29 IPv6 – Addressing Representation 3ffe:3700:0200:00ff:0000:0000:0000:0001 can be written 3ffe:3700:200:ff:0:0:0:1 or 3ffe:3700:200:ff::1

30 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.30 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. IPv6 born classless Generally network and host portion can be equally divided into 64bits each. 64-bit Network 64-bit Host

31 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.31 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. Host portion can be manually set or automatically calculated (EUI-64) 64-bit Network 64-bit Host

32 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.32 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. Device NICNIC ::0201:02FF:FE03: bit Network 64-bit Host EUI-64 MAC Format

33 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.33 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. Link-local address –Unique on a subnet –Result of router discovery or neighbor discovery –High-order: FE80::/64 –Low-order: interface identifier Site-local address –Unique to a “site” –High-order: FEC0::/48 –Low-order: interface identifier –What is a site?

34 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.34 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. Compatible IPv4 addresses –Of form ::a.b.c.d –Used by IPv6 hosts to communicate over automatic tunnels

35 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.35 Aggregatable global unicast address Used in production IPv6 networks Goal: minimize global routing table size From range 2000::/3 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd.

36 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.36 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd. Aggregatable global unicast address

37 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.37 IPv6 – Addressing Representation … contd.

38 IPv6 Direct and Indirect Communication

39 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.39 IPv6 – Communication Types Direct Communication “Between Same Networks” Indirect Communication “Between Different Networks”

40 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.40 IPv6 – Direct communication PC1 PC2 FEC0::1/64FEC0::2/64 L1 L2

41 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.41 IPv6 – Indirect communication PC1 PC2 FEC0::1:0:0:0:1/64 L1 L2 L1 L2 L1 L3 L2 FEC0::1:0:0:0:2/64FEC0::2:0:0:0:2/64 FEC0::2:0:0:0:1/64 FEC0::1/64 FEC0::2/64 G0/0 G0/1

42 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.42 IPv6 – ND Protocol vs IPv4 ARP IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol has the distinction of being the only truly new protocol created as part of the core of Internet Protocol version 6; there is no “NDv4” at all. Address Resolution Protocol: ND provides enhanced address resolution capabilities that are similar to the functions provided in IPv4 by ARP. Formalizing Of Router Discovery: In IPv4 the process of router discovery and solicitation was arguably an “afterthought”; ND formalizes this process and makes it part of the core of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Formalizing Of Address Resolution: In a similar manner, address resolution is handled in a superior way in ND. ND functions at layer three and is tightly tied to IP just like ICMP is. There is no more need for an “ambiguously-layered” protocol like ARP, whose implementation is very dependent on the underlying physical and data link layers.

43 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.43 Ability To Perform Functions Securely: ND operates at the network layer, so it can make use of the authentication and encryption capabilities of IPSec for tasks such as address resolution or router discovery. Autoconfiguration: In combination with features built into IPv6, ND allows many devices to automatically configure themselves even without the need for something like a DHCP server (though DHCPv6 does also exist.) Dynamic Router Selection: Devices use ND to detect if neighbors are reachable or not. If a device is using a router that stops being reachable it will detect this and ‘ automatically switch to another one. IPv6 – ND Protocol vs IPv4 ARP

44 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.44 Multicast-Based Address Resolution: Address resolution is performed using special multicast addresses instead of broadcasts, reducing unnecessary disruption of “innocent bystanders” when resolution messages must be sent. IPv6 – ND Protocol vs IPv4 ARP

45 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.45 Interior Gateway Protocols RIPng OSPFv3 EIGRP Exterior Gateway Protocols MPBGPv4 IPv6 – Routing Protocols

46 IPv6 Migration Strategy

47 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.47 Hardware End Systems Network Software Operating System Internetwork Operating System Applications and Services IPv6 Migration – HW/SW Upgradation

48 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.48 Types of Transition Mechanisms Dual Stacks IPv4/IPv6 coexistence on one device Tunnels For tunneling IPv6 across IPv4 clouds Later, for tunneling IPv4 across IPv6 clouds IPv6 IPv6 and IPv4 IPv4 Translators IPv6 IPv4

49 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.49 Dual Stacks Physical/Data Link IPv6IPv4 TCP/UDPv6 IPv6 Applications 0x0800 0x86dd TCP/UDPv4 IPv4 Applications Network, Transport, and Application layers do not necessarily interact without further modification or translation

50 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.50 Dual Layers Physical/Data Link IPv6IPv4 TCP/UDP Applications 0x0800 0x86dd TCP/UDP

51 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.51 Tunnel Applications IPv4 IPv6 Router to Router Host to Router / Router to Host Host to Host IPv6 IPv4 IPv6

52 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.52 Tunnel Types Configured tunnels Router to Router Automatic tunnels Tunnel Brokers (RFC 3053) 6to4 (RFC 3056) ISATAP (Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol) 6over4 (RFC 2529) Teredo IPv64 DSTM (Dual Stack Transition Mechanism)

53 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.53 Transition Mechanism Support

54 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.54 Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP) Proposed control protocol for negotiating tunnel parameters Applicable to several IPv6 tunneling schemes Can negotiate either IPv6 or IPv4 tunnels Uses XML messages over TCP session Example tunnel parameters: IP addresses Prefix information Tunnel endpoints DNS delegation Routing information Server redirects Three TSP phases: Authentication Phase Command Phase (client to server) Response Phase (server to client)

55 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.55 Tunnel Broker RFC 3053 describes general architecture, not a specific protocol Designed for small sites and isolated IPv6 hosts to connect to an existing IPv6 network Three basic components: Client: Dual-stacked host or router, tunnel end-point Tunnel Broker: Dedicated server for automatically managing tunnel requests from users, sends requests to Tunnel Server Tunnel Server: Dual-stacked Internet-connected router, other tunnel end point A few tunnel brokers: Gogo Networks (gogonet.gogo6.com) Freenet6 [Canada] (www.freenet6.net) CERNET/Nokia [China] (www.tb.6test.edu.cn) Internet Initiative Japan (www.iij.ad.jp) Hurricane Electric [USA] (www.tunnelbroker.com) BTexacT [UK] (www.tb.ipv6.btexact.com) Many others…

56 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.56 Tunnel Broker … cont IPv6 Network Tunnel Broker IPv4 Network Tunnel Server Client DNS 1 1.AAA Authorization 2.Configuration request 3.TB chooses: TS IPv6 addresses Tunnel lifetime 4.TB registers tunnel IPv6 addresses 5.Config info sent to TS 6.Config info sent to client: Tunnel parameters DNS name 7.Tunnel enabled IPv6 Tunnel 6 7

57 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.57 v4host.4net.org AAAA 3ffe:3700:1100:2:: Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) IPv6 Network IPv4 Network v6host.6net.com 3ffe:3700:1100:1:210:a4ff:fea0:bc97 v4host.4net.org NAT-PT DNS IPv4 Pool: /24 IPv6 prefix: 3ffe:3700:1100:2/64 v4host.4net.org? v4host.4net.org A

58 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.58 Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) IPv6 Network IPv4 Network v6host.6net.com 3ffe:3700:1100:1:210:a4ff:fea0:bc97 v4host.4net.org NAT-PT DNS IPv4 Pool: /24 IPv6 prefix: 3ffe:3700:1100:2/64 Source = 3ffe:3700:1100:1:210:a4ff:fea0:bc97 Dest = 3ffe:3700:1100:2:: Source = Dest = Source = Dest = Source = 3ffe:3700:1100:2:: Dest = 3ffe:3700:1100:1:210:a4ff:fea0:bc97 Mapping Table Inside Outside 3ffe:3700:1100:1:210:a4ff:fea0:bc

59 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.59 Lab Exercise – Enabling IPv6 in LAN

60 © 2008 National Engineers Training Services. All rights reserved.60 Lab Exercise – Enabling IPv6 in WAN

61 61 Thank You. National Engineers Training Services


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