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©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. 1 The ZigBee IP Stack IPv6-based stack for networks Robert Cragie Pacific Gas and Electric Company Chair, ZigBee Security Task Group Co-chair, ZigBee IP Stack Group Co-chair, IETF LWIG Working Group
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. ZigBee stack introduction
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. The ZigBee stack specification is defined in a document with ZigBee reference base ZigBee r06 ZigBee r13 ZigBee PRO Released r18 Basis for ZigBee SE 1.0 ZigBee IP … a completely different stack ZigBee Stack Evolution 3
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. ZigBee SE 1.0/PRO gaining momentum in the US (esp. Texas), Australia and the UK In the US, NIST SGIP was given a mandate to assist development of US-wide standards for the Smart Grid The main edict is that standards must be open Based on IETF and IEEE standards at the lower layers The ZigBee Alliance wanted to propel the momentum achieved with ZigBee SE 1.0/PRO going forward Initiated development of ZigBee SE 2.0 and ZigBee IP stack specifications with supporting test documentation Why a new, different stack? 4
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. It is clear that being able to use multiple MAC/PHYs gives maximum flexibility in premises The ZigBee and HomePlug Alliances therefore jointly developed the marketing and technical requirements for SE 2.0 Split into SE 2.0 application layer and underlying stack SE 2.0 application layer is stack agnostic as it is based on TCP The ZigBee IP stack is aimed at networks ZigBee is also developing guidelines for interfacing SE2.0 to HomePlug powerline and other IEEE-based stacks (Ethernet, ) Other MAC/PHYs 5
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. The ZigBee IP stack
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. ZigBee IP stack diagram MAC IPv6 TCPUDP Network Management (ND, RPL) 6lowpan adaptation PHY Application Security ZigBee SE 2.0 ZigBee IP stack Stack Security
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. A collection of independent standard specifications (e.g. RFCs) does not produce a standards-based stack which is interoperable across products from different manufacturers ZigBee IP specification is a “super-specification” A specification of other standard specifications Identifies required standard specifications Clarifies modes of operation Interoperability Streamlining ZigBee IP specification 8
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. IEEE MAC/PHY IETF 6lowpan-hc adaptation layer IETF 6lowpan-nd neighbor discovery IPv6 network layer RH4 routing header Hop-by-hop header RPL option TCP/UDP transport layer IETF ROLL RPL routing Non-storing mode PANA/EAP/EAP-TTLSv0/TLS security Public key (ECC and RSA) and PSK cipher suites mDNS/DNS-SD service discovery support ZigBee IP stack highlights 9
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved standard established for over four years Many chipset vendors Cheap, low power radios Basis for earlier ZigBee devices Potential to upgrade over-the-air RFD (reduced function device) aimed at ‘sleepy’, battery-operated devices Sleepy device wakes up infrequently, sends data then goes back to sleep IEEE MAC/PHY 10
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved has small PDUs Maximum PHY PDU is 127 bytes IP datagrams have a typical MTU of 1280 bytes IETF 6lowpan-hc Header compression to optimize limited bandwidth 40 octets to 3 octets Fragmentation Accommodate IPv6 datagram Autoconfiguration of IPv6 addresses based on MAC addresses Internet draft draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc-15 IETF 6lowpan-hc adaptation layer 11
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. RFC 4861 neighbor discovery aimed at hosts where router is always on-link 6lowpan topology is quite different A ZigBee IP network is 6lowpan topology IETF 6lowpan-nd neighbor discovery 12 RFC 4861 topology 6lowpan topology Router Host 6lowpan border router (6LBR) 6lowpan router (6LR) 6lowpan host (6LH)
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. 6lowpan-nd produced to specify neighbor discovery for 6lowpan devices Uses host-initiated and unicast transactions where possible to help sleepy devices No redirects Options for disseminating 6lowpan-wide data Prefix information Context information for header compression Border router information Address registration mechanism Multihop DAD Neighbor lifetime Internet draft draft-ietf-6lowpan-nd-15 IETF 6lowpan-nd neighbor discovery (2) 13
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. The use of IPv4 is deprecated Running out of addresses 6lowpan designed for IPv6 to produce efficient MAC PDUs based on autoconfigured IPv6 addresses The Internet of Things can only be truly realized using IPv6 One additional IPv6 header defined RH4 routing header One additional option for hop-by-hop header RPL option IPv6 network layer 14
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Similar to deprecated RH0 Header does not have to contain IP addresses Used for source routing within a 6lowpan RPL non-storing mode Must not be used in the general Internet Internet draft draft-ietf-6man-rpl-routing-header-02 RH4 routing header 15
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Data plane ancillary information for RPL DODAG Carried alongside data Control plane information relatively infrequent Limited ability to use control plane information for route repair Used for RPL instance selection and route repair Not to be used in the general Internet Internet draft draft-ietf-6man-rpl-option-02 Hop-by-hop header RPL option 16
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. TCP to support HTTP Web technology-based M2M Universal Some challenges for lossy and low-power networks UDP to support CoAP Development in IETF CoRE WG RESTful protocol for constrained devices RESTful HTTP/XML proposed for ZigBee SE 2.0 Data model based on Common Information Model (CIM) XML schema to describe presentation layer Content compression being considered gzip/deflate EXI (efficient XML interchange) TCP/UDP transport 17
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Follows conventional network access model “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it!” EAP and TLS are already widely used PANA is appropriate transport mechanism for 6lowpan PANA/EAP/EAP-TTLSv0/TLS security 18 Security stack diagram PANA EAP-TTLSv0 EAP TLS
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. PANA (Protocol for Authentication and Network Access) (RFC 5191) specified EAP lower layer Transport over UDP Similar concept to EAPOL (802.1X) Why not use EAPOL? More complex topology than 802.3/ No guaranteed direct access to authenticator UDP transport efficiently optimized in 6lowpan-hc PANA relay extension developed for 6lowpan networks draft-ohba-pana-relay-03 PANA 19
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. EAP (RFC 3748): Extensible Authentication Protocol Extensible packet format for carrying multiple authentication methods (EAP method) Specifies derived key hierarchy (MSK, EMSK) EAP-TTLSv0 (RFC 5281) is an EAP method for Transport Layer Security (TLS) Simple extension to EAP-TLS (RFC 5216) to provide a phase for securely transporting additional data Used to transport network key for frame security at the MAC layer Uses TLS handshake to provide mutual authentication EAP and EAP-TTLSv0 20
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. TLS 1.2 (RFC 5246) specified Two mandatory cipher suites TLS_PSK_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 Optional cipher suite TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 AES-128-CCM used for AEAD cipher Implemented in many chipsets Cipher suites in internet drafts draft-mcgrew-tls-aes-ccm-00 draft-mcgrew-tls-aes-ccm-ecc-01 TLS 21
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Typical security model 22 L2 secured network PANA PaCPANA PRE TLS Client PANA PAA EAP Authenticator TLS Server EAP Peer Unauthenticated node
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks networks are characterized as low power and lossy Builds a DODAG (Destination-Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph) comprised of 6lowpan routers to a border router (DODAG root) Data flow implicitly to root Non-storing mode means source routes have to be stored at root to communicate from root Internet draft draft-ietf-roll-rpl-19 IETF ROLL RPL routing 23
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. mDNS: draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-14 Method of hosting a DNS server on every device and using multicast to send a request within a local domain Current draft applies to link-local domain only Some additional considerations needed for site local domain and group addressing DNS-SD: draft-cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd-10 Use of DNS records in service discovery Namespacing and mechanisms appropriate to service discovery above name resolution ZigBee SE 2.0 defines additional service ‘_smartenergy’ mDNS and DNS-SD 24
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Missing parts Multiple subnet behavior Other considerations 25
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Protocols specified do not fit perfectly together There are overlaps and gaps Gaps have to be filled somehow PANA relay is a good example of further work undertaken to fill in a gap Other work is needed Neighbor exchange protocol for link status and alternative L2 address Link status needed for routing Alternative L2 address (IEEE address in ) needed for frame security processing Missing parts 26
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Not specifically a ZigBee IP issue ZigBee SE 2.0 needs to work over multiple subnets in the premises Some work needed to rationalize prefixes within subnets Work being done in v6ops draft-herbst-v6ops-cpeenhancements-00 Multiple subnet behavior 27
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Example of multiple subnets 28 ZigBee IPWiFi Ethernet HomePlug PLC
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Example ZigBee SE 2.0 deployment 29 HAN Utility backend server Utility ESI Utility AMI network Third party network (e.g. Internet) Third party backend server Third party ESI Commissioned- only device Utility only registered device Utility and third party registered device Network-only secured traffic Network and application secured traffic
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Progress
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Numerous vendors Chipset vendors OEM product Stack suppliers Aimed at resource constrained devices IP-based open source can be adapted Contiki/uIP Already supports 6lowpan lwIP Limited IPv6 support TinyOS Code size Not yet fully known as stacks still experimental Stack support 31
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. 10 test events held so far in the US and the UK Gating test event in August implementers past gating event Aim to have specification ready for members to start certification at the end of May 2011 Test events and timeline 32
©2011 ZigBee Alliance. All rights reserved. Thank you!
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