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Doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 Overview Presented to Hardware Action Group Active.

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Presentation on theme: "Doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 Overview Presented to Hardware Action Group Active."— Presentation transcript:

1 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 Overview Presented to Hardware Action Group Active Tagging (HAT) at GS1 Joint GSMP-JAG Meeting 2009 Mike McInnis The Boeing Company

2 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company 802.15.4 Standard Task Groups 802.15.4 defines 1 Mac + 3 PHYs –(2.4 GHz, Europe, Australia) 802.15.4a defines 2 PHYs –(2.4 GHz band Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) and UWB) 802.15.4c defines 1 new PHY –(2.4 GHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz, UWB, and China 779-787 MHz band) 802.15.4d defines 1 new PHY –(2.4 GHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz, and Japan 950-956 MHz band) 802.15.4e will define MAC Enhancements to 802.15.4 in support of ISA SP100.11a 802.15.4f will define ‘n’ new PHY(s?) –( UWB, 2.4 GHz, 433 MHz bands?) 802.15.4g will define ‘n’ new PHY(s?) for Smart Neighborhood Networks – Energy Industry Smart Grid Application –(902-928 MHz band?)

3 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 Alliances ZigBee –http://www.zigbee.org/http://www.zigbee.org/ ZigBee RF4CE –http://www.zigbee.org/rFAQ/tabid/413/Default.aspxhttp://www.zigbee.org/rFAQ/tabid/413/Default.aspx SynkroRF –http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/overview.jsp?nodeId=02205025654CB14C2Fhttp://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/overview.jsp?nodeId=02205025654CB14C2F ISA SP100.11a –http://www.isa.org/source/2008_02_ISASeminar_ISA100.11aStatus_Sexton_Kinney.pdfhttp://www.isa.org/source/2008_02_ISASeminar_ISA100.11aStatus_Sexton_Kinney.pdf WirelessHART –http://www.hartcomm2.org/hart_protocol/wireless_hart/wireless_hart_main.htmlhttp://www.hartcomm2.org/hart_protocol/wireless_hart/wireless_hart_main.html ISTEON –http://www.insteon.net/developers-about.htmlhttp://www.insteon.net/developers-about.html

4 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 and Homeland Security In 2006, two completely separate government programs were initiated: –One (1) through the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science & Technology Directorate –The second (2) through the European Commission's (EC) Preparatory Action for Security Research (PASR) program The DHS program, named Marine Asset Tag Tracking System (MATTS): –Tags provide continuous global location using GPS, integrate with sensors (wired or wirelessly) and transmit that data securely –Power management is critical given the autonomous nature of a MATTS tag –It was agreed that the radio protocol supporting MATTS would be IEEE 802.15.4 on 2.4GHz The EC PASR program was named Secure Container Data Device (SECCONDD) –Focused on bridging the gap between civil research (supported by the Commission's framework programs) and national and inter-governmental security research initiatives –The SECCONDD program had similar goals to MATTS, but was further integrated with a container security device –The SECCONDD program chose IEEE 802.15.4 (2.4GHz) air interface protocol

5 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Non-IEEE 802.15.4 Alliances EnOcean Alliance –http://www.enocean.com/http://www.enocean.com/ Z-Wave –http://www.z-wavealliance.org/modules/start/http://www.z-wavealliance.org/modules/start/ DASH7 Alliance –http://www.dash7.org/http://www.dash7.org/ Bluetooth SIG –https://www.bluetooth.org/apps/content/https://www.bluetooth.org/apps/content/ –However, Bluetooth was ‘standardized’ within IEEE 802.15 as IEEE 802.15.1 and 15.1a

6 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee Chipset Suppliers http://www.zigbee.org/imwp/idms/popups/pop_download.asp?ContentID=7692

7 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee Chip Comparison - Transceivers http://freaklabs.org/index.php/Articles/Zigbee/Zigbee-Chip-Comparison.html

8 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee Chip Comparison – Integrated MCU +Transceivers http://freaklabs.org/index.php/Articles/Zigbee/Zigbee-Chip-Comparison.html

9 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 Chipset Shipments-2008 http://www.eeherald.com/section/news/nw10000451.html 19 Feb 09 Freescale shipped 7 million units of ZigBee and IEEE802.15.4 chipsets in year 2008 to take number one ranking in this market. With this, Freescale garners a market share of 60% in IEEE802.15.4-based ICs. Since energy management is a global agenda, Zigbee and other IEEE802.15.4 devices have a bigger role to play in wireless energy meter and other household metering solutions. By year 2011, it can be estimated; the IEEE802.15.4 based chipset market demand might reach greater than 100 million units. Peak consumption of these devices may start in 2010 and continue up to 2015. In about 4/5 years of timeframe from 2009, there is a market demand for about 1 billion unit shipments.

10 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee Compliant Platforms http://www.zigbee.org/Products/CertifiedProducts/CompliantPlatforms/tabid/269/Default.aspx

11 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Designed for ZigBee but not yet ZigBee certified http://www.zigbee.org/Products/DesignedForZigBee/tabid/234/Default.aspx

12 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802 Standard documents Available for download at no cost; –http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/portfolio.htmlhttp://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/portfolio.html IEEE 802.15.4-2006 IEEE Standard for Information technology-- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems--Local and metropolitan area networks-- Specific requirements Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)IEEE 802.15.4-2006 IEEE 802.15.4a-2007 IEEE Standard for PART 15.4: Wireless MAC and PHY Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs): Amendment 1: Add Alternate PHYIEEE 802.15.4a-2007 IEEE 802.11-2007 IEEE Standard for Information technology- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems-Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) SpecificationsIEEE 802.11-2007

13 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ZigBee Specification documents Available at no cost for download from; –http://www.zigbee.org/Products/TechnicalDocumentsDownload/tabid/237/Default.aspxhttp://www.zigbee.org/Products/TechnicalDocumentsDownload/tabid/237/Default.aspx

14 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company ISO Standard documents Must Purchase; –http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43 892http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43 892

15 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Asset Tracking IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs provide sensor and location information about valuable assets. Example applications include container/vehicle tracking and monitoring, personnel identification, etc. http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

16 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Advanced Metering Infrastructure IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs are used to automatically collect indications from metering devices (water, gas, electricity, etc.) without need for human participation http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

17 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Building/Home Automation IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs in residential homes as well as in large commercial buildings are used to continuously monitor and control such physical conditions as temperature, humidity, light, smoke, etc. http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

18 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Industrial Automation IEEE 802.15 WSNs improve manufacturing- and process-control via continuous monitoring of industrial machinery and equipment. http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

19 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 protocol stack IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies only the lowest part of OSI communication model: PHY layer and MAC sub-layer. Medium Access Control sub-layer (MAC) MAC sub-layer is responsible for reliable communication between two devices over direct physical link (without intermediate nodes). The key functions of the MAC layer include: Data framing and validation of received frames Device addressing Channel access management Device association and disassociation Sending acknowledgement frames Physical layer (PHY) Physical layer provides means for bit stream transmission over the physical medium. The key responsibilities of PHY are: Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver Frequency channel tuning Carrier sensing Received signal strength estimation (RSSI & LQI) Data coding and modulation Error correction http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/# Structure of IEEE 802.15.4 protocol stack

20 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IP-Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) IP for Smart Objects Alliance (IPSO) – The IPSO Alliance was formed to promote the Internet Protocol as the network technology of choice for connecting Smart Objects around the world. –IP opens the door to linking sensor and other simple networks directly to the Internet, eliminating the need for translation gateways. –"Some people don't get that now you can put IP in a sub-$2 device," he added. "We can fit into as small a memory footprint as anyone if not smaller," requiring as little as 4 Kbytes RAM and 32 Kbytes flash, he added. –"The formation of the IPSO Alliance represents a disruptive development for sensing and control [networks] and momentum [for its approach] is accelerating,“ –IP-based technologies for wireless sensor networking have been gaining attention over the past year, most notably 6LoWPAN," the Internet Engineering Task Force standard for running IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 nets 6LoWPAN –Most businesses deploy TCP/IP today and they see 6LowPAN as an easy extension to this architecture. –The IPSO alliance hopes to have an interoperability program in place in November. It initially aims to test interoperability of the ten or more 6LoWPAN software stacks that have been released to date. –http://www.ipso-alliance.orghttp://www.ipso-alliance.org –http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=0CNEE2EILSTSGQSNDLPCKHSCJUNN2JVN?articleID=21060175 0http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=0CNEE2EILSTSGQSNDLPCKHSCJUNN2JVN?articleID=21060175 0 Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (roll) group Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) –IPv6 routing with high reliability while permitting low-power operation over IEEE 802.15.4 and others. –http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/roll-charter.htmlhttp://www.ietf.org/html.charters/roll-charter.html –http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml;?articleID=207601626http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml;?articleID=207601626 IPv6 over Low power WPAN (6Lowpan) group Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) –The “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks" standard (RFC4944) defines the format for the adaptation between IPv6 and IEEE 802.15.4. –http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/6lowpan-charter.htmlhttp://www.ietf.org/html.charters/6lowpan-charter.html

21 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company Auto-ID Labs presentation at GS1 Joint GSMP – JAG Meeting 2009 Tuesday March 24 3:00-5:30pm http://www.autoidlabs.org/single-view/dir/article/1/324/page.html “Our approach is to store sensor profile in servers on the Internet, and allow networked clients to search or download relevant profile using an EPC of target sensor node. To identify sensor nodes we assign EPCs to sensor nodes. To find authorized sensor profile servers, called sensor profile server, we adopt resolution service by extending ONS that changes an EPC to authorized locations of EPCIS. Readers or other roles in EPCglobal Network who do not have prior capability information but want to access sensor networks and physical data collected from them may use sensor profile services.” Presentor: Daeyoung Kim Note

22 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 General Types of network devices There are two basic types of devices that can be present in an 802.15.4 network: RFD and FFD RFD – Reduced Function Device An RFD (also referred as an end-device) contains limited set of 802.15.4 features. The main characteristics of an RFD are; It can communicate only to a single FFD in the network and not other RFDs It requires little memory, processing and power resources for operation Usually such reduced networking functionality is sufficient for sensor and actuator nodes. FFD – Full Function Device A device of FFD type contains the full set of IEEE 802.15.4 features and hence FFD is capable to act as a network coordinator and as an end-device Can communicate both to FFDs and RFDs requires extra memory and processing power, consumes more energy compared to RFD A network device must be FFD if it wants to act as network coordinator or if it requires data packet forwarding capability http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

23 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company 802.15.4 Data transfer models Data transmission in an 802.15.4 network can be organized in two ways: star and peer-to-peer. Star In star model devices are interconnected in form of a star: There is a central node (coordinator). All the network nodes (FFDs and RFDs) communicate only to the coordinator. Data forwarding is possible only through coordinator (two-hop only) Coverage area is limited by one-hop transmission range Peer-to-peer In peer-to-peer model an FFD can communicate to all other devices within its range. RFD can talk only to an FFD it is currently associated with. Peer-to-peer model is characterized by following properties: Data frames can be delivered via several intermediate nodes (multi-hop transmission) Large spatial areas can be covered by a single network Packet routing algorithms are required Star data transfer model Peer-to-peer data transfer model http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

24 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Layer 802.15.4 PHY communication is available on 3 frequency bands: 802.15.4a, 802.15.4c, 802.15.4d currently provide PHY alternatives to 802.15.4 802.15.4f and 802.15.4g are expected to proved additional PHY alternatives to 802.15.4 in the near future.

25 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer MAC layer defines mechanisms for direct (single hop) communication between two devices. Such single hop data exchange is possible only within transmission range of participating pair of nodes. Key MAC layer responsibilities are described below. Data framing Communication on MAC layer is packet based. It means that data to be sent is encapsulated into a MAC frame that is passed to RF transceiver. A node shall accept only frames destined for it and upon their reception frames are checked on errors that could have occurred during transmission and corrected if possible. Device addressing Each device is identified by unique 64 bits long MAC layer address that is used by sender as destination for the packets sent on the MAC layer. Channel access management: CSMA-CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is well known “listen- before-send” principle for managing access to single physical channel among multiple devices. It ensures reliable communication and provides efficient usage of limited channel bandwidth. Device Association/Disassociation Upon higher layer requests MAC layer performs device association and disassociation (enters/leaves network). http://www.meshnetics.com/zigbee-learning/#

26 doc.: IEEE 802.15-09-0257-00-004f Submission March 2009 Mike McInnis - The Boeing Company The End Any Questions?


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