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Introduction to dynamic routing on Linux with Quagga FVLUG – July 23, 2007 Wim Kerkhoff –

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to dynamic routing on Linux with Quagga FVLUG – July 23, 2007 Wim Kerkhoff –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to dynamic routing on Linux with Quagga FVLUG – July 23, 2007 Wim Kerkhoff – wim@nyetwork.orgwim@nyetwork.org

2 Overview  Short introduction to dynamic routing  Introduce Quagga  Installing Quagga on Debian  Example Quagga configurations  Demo  Using Quagga in production

3 Static Routing  Simplist and most common method  Manually configured by humans  Can’t handle network changes such as outages  Doesn’t scale with many network devices  Requires least amount of expertise  Generally used on hosts (PCs, printers, etc) and simple NAT routers

4 Dynamic Routing Protocols  Applications that automatically discover network destinations  First they learn what network routes are directly connected  Then chat with neighbouring routers to learn what they know  The entire network learns about changes within minutes or even seconds  Generally used on Internet backbone routers and in organizations with many routers

5 Common routing protocols  RIP – old one, based on hop count. Timer system can result in slow convergence  OSPF – also uses multicast. Calculates shortest path using costs assigned to each link. Easy to setup but less knobs then BGP. Used inside organization  BGP – uses TCP session. Can do filtering, route-maps, mangling, etc. Normally used for communicating with other organizations and based on policy

6 Remember: Routing != Forwarding  Routing directs forwarding  Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network  Forwarding is the relaying of packets through one network segment to another by nodes  So a network device can perform routing, forwarding, or both  So you’ll have a broken router if /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward is set to 0 even with a beautiful quagga config

7 What is Quagga?  Open source routing software  Forked 4 years ago from Zebra to form a much better and healthier de- centralized community  Similar syntax and look to Cisco IOS  No control over OS, unlike IOS

8 Quagga features  RIPv1 and v2 (IPv4)  RIPng (IPv6)  OSPFv2  OSPFv3  BGPv4 with multiprotocol extension  VTY shell – Cisco like  SNMP  IPv6

9 Supported Platforms  GNU/Linux 2.2.x and higher  FreeBSD 4.x and higher  NetBSD 1.6 and higher  OpenBSD 2.5 and higher

10 System Architecture

11 Install / configuration overview  Install Debian  apt-get install quagga tcpdump iproute  Add set VTYSH_PAGER=cat to ~/.bashrc  Update /etc/quagga/daemons (zebra,ospfd,bgpd)  echo username root nopassword > vtysh.conf  touch zebra.conf ospfd.conf bgpd.conf  /etc/init.d/quagga start  Vtysh to start configuring  Don’t forget to copy run start like on IOS  Reboot and ensure convergence

12 Demo

13 Router 1 Configuration interface eth0 ip address 192.168.21.8/24 ! interface eth1 ip address 10.3.2.1/30 ! interface lo ip address 10.3.3.1/32 ! router ospf ospf router-id 10.3.3.1 redistribute connected network 10.3.2.0/30 area 0.0.0.0 default-information originate always ! ip route 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.21.254 ! ip forwarding

14 Router 2 Configuration interface eth0 ip address 10.3.2.2/30 ! interface lo ip address 10.3.3.2/32 ! router ospf ospf router-id 10.3.3.2 redistribute connected network 10.3.2.0/30 area 0.0.0.0 ! ip forwarding

15 Routing table on Router 2 quagga2:~# vtysh Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.5). Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al. quagga2# show ip route Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, O - OSPF, I - ISIS, B - BGP, > - selected route, * - FIB route O>* 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 10.3.2.1, eth0, 1d20h22m O 10.3.2.0/30 [110/10] is directly connected, eth0, 1d20h33m C>* 10.3.2.0/30 is directly connected, eth0 O>* 10.3.3.1/32 [110/20] via 10.3.2.1, eth0, 1d20h22m C>* 10.3.3.2/32 is directly connected, lo C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo O>* 192.168.21.0/24 [110/20] via 10.3.2.1, eth0, 1d20h22m

16 OSPF neighbour details quagga2# show ip ospf neighbor detail Neighbor 10.3.3.1, interface address 10.3.2.1 In the area 0.0.0.0 via interface eth0 Neighbor priority is 1, State is Full, 11 state changes Most recent state change statistics: Progressive change 1d20h25m ago Regressive change 1d20h25m ago, due to 1-WayReceived DR is 10.3.2.2, BDR is 10.3.2.1 Options 2 *|-|-|-|-|-|E|* Dead timer due in 38.944s Database Summary List 0 Link State Request List 0 Link State Retransmission List 0 Thread Inactivity Timer on Thread Database Description Retransmision off Thread Link State Request Retransmission on Thread Link State Update Retransmission on

17 Production tips?  Make sure you have backups of /etc/quagga, /etc/network/interfaces, and iptables rules  Keep templates  Monitor the router as if it was a server: disk space, memory, load, etc  Have redundant routers so that you can perform OS updates safely with 0 downtime  Be consistent – stick to your templates  Run lean & mean – K.I.S.S.  Be secure  But make sure you can somehow access the box even if routing is broken  Stick to a single protocol if possible

18 Interior uses of OSPF and BGP  Managing multiple ISP links (failover / load balancing)  Multisites using VPNs and/or private links  Failover between servers

19 Want to experiment?  Setting up 30 machines to simulate a 30 router network is tough  Virtualize using Xen, VMWare, OpenVZ etc  Linksys WRT54G with DD- WRT/OpenWRT

20 Worthy competitor to $60k Cisco?  Yes!  2 x 1U servers with onboard dual GigE  Servers can be under $1500 each and perform just fine for 99% of situations  Need more ports? VLAN trunking to managed Layer2 switch  Commodity memory and processors are dirt cheap and as fast as expensive ASICs  Each full BGP table needs approx 128 MB physical RAM

21 Documentation  Documentation exists for quagga  Wiki.quagga.net has more useful examples  But it’s geared towards quagga itself and not dynamic routing  Understanding routing protocols is critical  Having experience with configuring RIP/OSPF/BGP on Cisco via CLI helps a lot  CLI has built-in usage info using the ? mark like in Cisco IOS  Zebra/Quagga mailing list archives  Any Cisco OSPF/BGP syntax guides and examples  Google

22 Questions/Discussion


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