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Multicast on the Internet CSE 6590 116 April 2015.

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Presentation on theme: "Multicast on the Internet CSE 6590 116 April 2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multicast on the Internet CSE April 2015

2 Multicast Addressing Class D address (see next slide) Source: unicast IP address S Receivers: multicast group ID G, a class-D address Each group is identified by (S, G) Ethernet broadcast address (all 1’s) 2 ways of doing IP multicast at the link layer: – Link-layer (Ethernet) broadcast – Link-layer (Ethernet) multicast Both cases need filtering at IP layer. 2

3 IPv4 Address Formats 3

4 Multicast Addressing at Link Layer 1. Link-layer (Ethernet) broadcast IP multicast packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet broadcast frame and transmitted on the bus. Every host picks up the Ethernet frame and does filtering at the IP layer to decide whether to keep or discard the frame. 2. Link-layer (Ethernet) multicast Requires a mapping of IP multicast address to an Ethernet multicast address (see next slide). There are up to 32 IP class-D addresses mapped to the same Ethernet multicast address. The IP module still has to filter out packets for non-member hosts. 4

5 Mapping from Class D IP adress to Ethernet multicast adress 5

6 Internet Multicast Service Model Multicast group concept: use of indirection a host “sends” IP datagrams to multicast group. routers forward multicast datagrams to hosts that have “joined” that multicast group multicast group

7 Multicast groups  Class D Internet addresses reserved for multicast:  Host group semantics: oanyone can “join” (receive from) multicast group. oanyone can send to multicast group. ono network-layer identification to hosts of members.  Needed: infrastructure to deliver multicast-addressed datagrams to all hosts that have joined that multicast group. 7

8 Multicast Protocols Transport layer UDP Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP): for multimedia content ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP): for bandwidth reservation in a multicast distribution 8

9 Multicast Protocols (2) Routing, delivery On a local network (join/leave): – Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) – Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD): similar to IGMP but for IPv6 Intra-domain (routing): – MOSPF, PIM, DVMRP Inter-domain (routing): – Multicast Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP) 9

10 Joining a multicast group: 2-step process Local: host informs local multicast router of desire to join group: IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Wide area: local router interacts with other routers to receive multicast datagram flow – many protocols (e.g., DVMRP, MOSPF, PIM) 10 IGMP wide-area multicast routing

11 IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol Router: sends IGMP query at regular intervals – hosts belonging to a multicast group must reply to query if wishing to join or stay in the group. Host: sends IGMP report (reply) when application wishes to join a multicast group. – IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP socket option – hosts need not explicitly “unjoin” group when leaving 11 query report

12 IGMP Router: broadcasts Host Membership Query message on LAN. Host: replies with Host Membership Report message to indicate group membership – randomized delay before responding – cancel its own report if hearing another – implicit leave via no reply to Query Group-specific Query Leave Group message – Last host replying to Query can send explicit Leave Group message – Router performs group- specific query to see if any hosts left in group – Introduced in RFC 2236 IGMP v3: current version 12

13 IGMP: Summary For membership management. Between a host on a subnet (Ethernet) and the router for the subnet. The router periodically broadcast an IGMP host-membership query message on its subnet. A host subscribes to a group replies by multicasting a host- membership report message. – Note: feedback implosion  uses a random timer. The report is sent 3 times (for reliability). IGMP-1: hosts send no report  leaving the group IGMP-2: hosts send explicit host-membership leave messages to reduce leave latency. 13

14 Reverse Path Forwarding Building a loop-free broadcast tree No knowledge of group membership 14

15 Reverse Path Forwarding (2) if (multicast datagram received on incoming link on shortest path back to sender) then flood datagram onto all outgoing links else ignore datagram  rely on router’s knowledge of unicast shortest path from it to sender  each router has simple forwarding behavior: 15

16 Reverse Path Forwarding: Example 16 A B G D E c F

17 Spanning-Tree Broadcast 17 A B G D E c F A B G D E c F (a) Broadcast initiated at A (b) Broadcast initiated at D

18 Truncated Broadcasting Extension of Reverse Path Forwarding. No members of a group on a subnet  leaf router will not forward packets of this group to the subnet (pruning). But does not reduce traffic in the core network. More efficient multicast routing is needed!!! 18

19 Internet Multicasting Routing: DVMRP DVMRP: distance vector multicast routing protocol, RFC1075. Flood and prune: reverse path forwarding, source- based tree. – initial datagram to multicast group is flooded everywhere via RPF – routers not wanting the multicast data: send prune messages to upstream neighbors 19

20 DVMRP Example R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R i router with attached group member router with no attached group member link used for forwarding, i indicates order link added by algorithm LEGEND S: source 20

21 DVMRP Details Soft state: DVMRP router periodically (1 min.) “forgets” that branches are pruned: – multicast data again flows down unpruned branches. – downstream routers: reprune or else continue to receive data. Routers can quickly re-graft to tree following an IGMP join at a leaf router by sending a “graft” message upstream. Deployment: – commonly implemented in commercial routers. – Mbone routing done using DVMRP. Works well in small autonomous domains. 21

22 DVMRP: Summary Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol Leaf router sends a prune message to neighbouring routers when there is no group member on the subnet. Intermediate routers perform pruning whenever possible. Flooding and pruning are repeated periodically, when the current state times out. Between flooding rounds, a leaf router can re-join a group by sending a graft message upstream. Intermediate routers propagates the graft message upstream until the path is re-connected. 22

23 Multicast Routing Approaches Minimum cost trees – Steiner trees Shortest path trees – Source-based trees – Core-based trees …we first look at basic approaches, then specific protocols adopting these approaches 23

24 Steiner Trees Steiner Tree: minimum cost tree connecting all routers with attached group members. Problem is NP-complete. Excellent heuristics exist. Not used in practice: – computational complexity. – information about entire network needed. – monolithic: rerun whenever a router needs to join/leave. 24

25 Shortest Path Tree Multicast cast forwarding tree: tree of shortest path routes from source to all receivers. – Dijkstra’s algorithm. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R i router with attached group member router with no attached group member link used for forwarding, i indicates order link added by algorithm LEGEND S: source 25

26 MOSPF Extends OSPF for multicasting. Every router has the complete topology of its autonomous system. A receiver joins a multicast group G by exchanging IGMP messages with its end-router R. The end-router R broadcasts its group membership to the whole network in the form (G, R). Every router in the network maintains a group membership table with each entry being a tuple [S, G, ]. A sender simply sends data packets as they are available. Each router uses the network topology, the group membership table, and the multicast group ID in the data packets to compute the route(s) to the destination(s). 26

27 Core-Based Trees For many-to-many multicast. Protocols: CBT, PIM-SM, PIM-DM (Protocol Independent Multicast, sparse/dense mode) Purpose: to reduce the amount of routing info stored at routers when a multicast group has a large number of members and multiple senders. A multicast group requires a core (rendez-vous point). Receivers “join” the (shortest-path) tree rooted at the core  only one tree per multicast group (used for multiple senders). Sources send multicast data to the core, which then multicasts the data to the tree. 27

28 MBone Multicast backbone of the Internet. Not all routers support multicast routing protocols and IGMP. Connecting multicast-capable routers using (virtual) IP tunnels. Was a long-running experimental approach to enabling multicast between sites through the use of tunnels. No longer operational. 28

29 References Multicasting on the Internet and Its Applications, Sanjoy Paul, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, chapters 2, 4, 5. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 5 th edition, Kurose and Ross. 29


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