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IPv6 Addressing. Agenda OSI & TCP/IP Model IPv4 Addressing IPv6 Addressing.

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Presentation on theme: "IPv6 Addressing. Agenda OSI & TCP/IP Model IPv4 Addressing IPv6 Addressing."— Presentation transcript:

1 IPv6 Addressing

2 Agenda OSI & TCP/IP Model IPv4 Addressing IPv6 Addressing

3 TCP/IP and OSI OSI is made of seven layers. TCP/IP protocol is made of five layers. PHYSICAL DATA LINK NETWORK TRANSPORT APPLICATION PHYSICAL DATA LINK NETWORK TRANSPORT SESSION PRESENTATION APPLICATION OSI Model TCP/IP Model

4 Frame HeadTrailer Frame Data Encapsulation Data TCP Header TCP Segment UDP Header UDP Message TCP-UDPDataIP Header IP Datagram IP HeaderTCP-UDPData Application TPT Layer NW Layer Data Link

5 D P N T A TCP/IPv4 Protocol Suite.. ICMPIGMP RARPARP FTP SMTP TELNET HTTP TFTP NFS SNMP DNS TCP UDP IP Protocols defined by the underlying networks

6 IP Header..

7 ARP Operation Request Ignored ARP Response Accepted Give me MAC address of That’s Me Here is my MAC address F-C AC A-21-A F-AB

8 RARP Operation Give me my IP addressRARP Response Diskless work station RARP Server F-C AC A-21-A F-AB

9 IPv4 Header Version (4) Destination IP Address (32) Header Length (4) Priority & Type of Service (8) Total Length (16) Identification (16) Flags (3) Fragment offset (13) Time to live (8) Protocol (8)Header checksum (16) Source IP Address (32) 20 Bytes RemovedChanged

10 IPv6 Header Version (4) Destination IP Address (128) Traffic Class(8) Flow Label(20) Payload Length(16) Next Header(8) Hop Limit(8) Source IP Address (128) 40 Bytes New

11 Header Fields Version (4 bits) – 6 for IPv6 Traffic Class (8 bits) – ~= TOS in IPv4 – Identifies different classes or priorities (diffserv) Flow Label (20 bits) – Not yet fully defined – Used by a source node to label sequences of packets Payload Length – ~= Total length in IPv4 4/16/201511

12 Next Header Field Next Header (8 bits) – ~= Protocol field in IPv4 – Used to identify the encapsulated protocol TCP, UDP ESP, AH (confidentiality and authentication in IPsec) ICMPv6 Other extensions 4/16/201512

13 Hop Limit Field Hop Limit ~= TTL in IPv4 MTU must be at least 1280 bytes (1500+ recommended) Nodes should use Path MTU discovery UDP checksum required 4/16/201513

14 Extension Header 4/16/ IPv6 Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = ESP ESP Header Next Header = TCP New way of doing options Added after the basic IPv6 header Daisy chained

15 Extension Headers List – Hop-by-hop options (0) Information that must be examined by every node along the path Used by Router Alert and Jumbogram – Routing (43) Similar to IPv4's Loose Source and Record Route option Used by mobileIPv6 – Fragment (44) Used by source node (routers don’t fragment anymore!) – Destination options (60) Used to carry optional information that need to be examined only by a packet's destination node(s) Used by MobileIPv6 4/16/201515

16 Extension Headers Order of the headers should be the following: IPv6 header Hop-by-Hop Options header Destination Options header (when the routing header is used) Routing header Fragment header Authentication header Encapsulating Security Payload header Destination Options header Upper-layer header Source node should follow this order, but destination nodes should be prepared to receive them in any order 4/16/201516

17 Routing Header Source Routing – Go through this list of routers: A, B, C, D – List is included in the routing header – Destination address is always the next router in the list, up to the last one where the destination address is the destination node – Destination address is changed on every router in the list Simpler use: – MobileIPv6: Care-of-Address is the "next router" and Home- Address is the final destination 4/16/201517

18 Summary Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6 headers shows a longer header, but less number of fields Header processing is simpler Options are handled by extension headers Routing header for source routing changes the destination address in the IP header 4/16/201518

19 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING19 IPv4 Addressing 8 Bits NetworkHost 32 Bits

20 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING20 IPv4 Address Scheme Two types of addressing schemes for IPv4 –Classful –Classless Classful –Original style of addressing based on first few bits of the address. –Generally used in customer sites. Classless –A new type of addressing that disregards the class bit of an address and applies a variable prefix (mask) to determine the network number.

21 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING21 IPv4 Address classes HHHN Class-A: HHNN Class-B: H NNN Class-C: Class-D:For Multicast Class-E:For Research N=Network number assigned by IR. H=Host number assigned by network administrator.

22 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING22 Identifying a class of address Address IdentifierNetwork AddressHost Address 07 bits Network Address24 bits Host Address A 1014 bits Network Address16 bits Host Address B bits Network Address8 bits Host Address C 1110Multicast address ( ) D 1111Reserved for future use E

23 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING23 IP Address Bit Patterns 8 Bits Class-A: Class-B: Class-C: Class-D: Class-E:

24 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING24 Networks Vs Hosts In Classless environment we can have 2 32 = Hosts ClassNetworksHosts/Network A B C

25 ALTTC/DX/SC/IPADDRESSING25 Private Address Space IANA has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets (RFC 1918): – ( /8 prefix) 24-bit block Complete class-A network number – ( /12 prefix) / / bit block Set of 16 contiguous class-B network numbers – ( /16 prefix) 16-bit block Set of 256 contiguous class-C network numbers

26 IPv6 Addressing IPv6 addresses Format Unicast Multicast Anycast Required Node Addresses Address Selection Addressing Architecture 4/16/201526

27 Addresses IPv4 = 32 bits IPv6 = 128 bits – This is not 4 times the number of addresses – This is 4 times the number of bits – ~3,4 * 1038 possible addressable nodes – 1030 addresses per person on the planet – Well, as with any numbering scheme, we will be using only a portion of the full address space 4/16/201527

28 Address Format x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x – Where x is a 16 bits hexadecimal field 2001:0000:1234:0000:0000:C1C0:ABCD:0876 Case insensitive 2001:0000:1234:0000:0000:c1c0:abcd:0876 Leading zeros in a field are optional: 2001:0:1234:0:0:C1C0:ABCD:876 4/16/201528

29 Address format Successive fields of 0 are represented as ::, but only once in an address: – 2001:0:1234::C1C0:ABCD:876 – Not valid: 2001::1234::C1C0:ABCD:876 Other examples: – FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 => FF02::1 – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 => ::1 – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 => :: 4/16/201529

30 Addresses in URL In a URL, it is enclosed in brackets – – URL parsers have to be modified – Cumbersome for users Mostly for diagnostic purposes Should use Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) 4/16/201530

31 Address Types Unicast – Unspecified – Loopback – Scoped addresses: Link-local Site-local (Deprecated now) Unique-Local – Aggregatable Global: Multicast – Broadcast: none in IPv6 Anycast 31

32 Unspecified Used as a placeholder when no address available – Initial DHCP request – Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) Like in IPv4 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or :: 4/16/201532

33 Loopback Identifies self Localhost Like in IPv4 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1 To find if your IPv6 stack works: – Ping6 ::1 4/16/201533

34 Link-Local Scoped address (new in IPv6) Scope = local link (i.e. VLAN, subnet) – Can only be used between nodes of the same link – Cannot be routed Automatically configured on each interface – Uses the interface identifier (based on MAC address) Format: – FE80:0:0:0: Gives every node an IPv6 address to start communications 4/16/201534

35 Site-Local( now ULA) Scoped address Scope = site (a network of links) – Can only be used between nodes of the same site – Cannot be routed outside the site (i.e. the Internet) – Very similar to IPv4 private addresses Not configured by default 4/16/201535

36 Unique local address ULA is an IPv6 address in the block fc00::/7 defined in RFC To be used for systems that are not connected to the Internet. Divided into two /8 address groups – assigned and random –valid /48 prefixes are derived 4/16/201536

37 Aggregatable Global Generic use. Globally reachable. Allocated by IANA – To Regional Registries – Then to Tier-1 Providers Called Top-level Aggregator (TLA) – Then to Intermediate Providers Called Next-level Aggregator (NLA) – Then to sites – Then to subnets 4/16/201537

38 Aggregatable Global Structure: 4/16/ TLA RES NLAs SLA Interface ID 48 bits16 bits64 bits 128 bits as the total 48 bits prefix to the site 16 bits for the subnets in the site 64 bits for host part

39 Aggregatable Global Consists of the following (left to right): – 3 bits: 001 (10% of the total address space reserved) – 13 bits for the TLA 2 13 TLAs ~ 8K TLAs – 8 bits reserved – 24 bits for the NLAs 2 24 NLAs per TLA ~ 16M NLAs per TLA – 16 bits for the site subnets 2 16 subnets per site = subnets – 64 bits for the interface identifier – Total = 128 bits. 4/16/201539

40 Multicast Multicast = one-to-many No broadcast in IPv6. Multicast is used instead, mostly on local links Scoped addresses: – Node, link, site, organisation, global – No TTL as in IPv4 Format: – FF :: 4/16/201540

41 Multicast assigned Addresses Some reserved multicast addresses: 4/16/ AddressScopeUse FF01::1Interface-localAll Nodes FF01::2Interface-localAll Routers FF02::1Link-localAll Nodes FF02::2Link-localAll Routers FF05::2Site-localAll Routers FF02::1:FFxx:xxxxLink-localSolicited-Node

42 Anycast One-to-nearest: great for discovery functions Anycast addresses are indistinguishable from unicast addresses – Allocated from the unicast addresses space – Some anycast addresses are reserved for specific uses Few uses: – Router-subnet – MobileIPv6 home-agent discovery – discussions for DNS discovery 4/16/201542

43 Required Node Addresses Any IPv6 node should recognize the following addresses as identifying itself: – Link-local address for each interface – Assigned (manually or automatically) unicast/anycast addresses – Loopback address – All-nodes multicast address – Solicited-node multicast address for each of its assigned unicast and anycast address – Multicast address of all other groups to which the host belongs 4/16/201543

44 Thanks 4/16/201544


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