# Some random thoughts of IPv6 Marcial White University of Advancing Technology.

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Some random thoughts of IPv6 Marcial White University of Advancing Technology

The gameplan What is the internets? »(hint: not a truck) Ok so WTF happened to IPv5? What is IPv6? Why is IPv6? How do I IPv6?

Basically, a bunch of little networks connected to each other Internet protocol Unique global computer addressing Currently on: IPv4 (aka TCP/IPv4) TCP/UDP Addressing Subnetting NAT What is the internet?

IPv4 – Addresses\Notation 32-bit addresses –1 bit = 0 or 1 –32 bits = xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx Dot-decimal notation –Decimal = 0-9 –Dot =. o_0 –Example address: 192.168.1.100

Limited Addresses 32 bits, 2 possibilities per digit (0 or 1) 2^32 4,294,967,296 <(~~ possible addresses 6,528,089,562 <(~~ people on the earth (1) ~ 729,200,000 <(~~ people on line in 2003 (2) –(3) Forbes Magazine says … 1/3 of the possible addresses are already in use 1/3 of the possible addresses have already been spoken for 1/3 of the possible addresses need to supply the rest of the world with myspace accounts 

Address math –1/3 of 4,294,967,296 –1,431,655,765 IP addresses in use –1,431,655,765 IP’s per 729,200,000 peeps –Almost 2 IP’s per person average –5,798,889,562 people aren’t on line –If everyone in the world tried to be on line with 1 IP per person, 2,233,122,266 people would not get addresses! ZOMG Imagine life without YouTube OR 4Chan!!!

Subnetting Temporarily fixes limited addressing Network ID Host ID Classes NAT CIDR

Subnetting Example IP: 192.168. 1.100 SNM: 255.255.255.0 –And in binary, just to make it fun: –IP: 11000000 10101000 00000001 01100100 –SNM: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 Network ID becomes the first three octets 192.168.1 Host ID becomes the last octet.100

CIDR/NAT Classless Inter-Domain Routing 24 x 1’s in the SNM 255.255.255.0 So, CIDR notation is: 192.168.1.100/24 Network Address Translation Provides a way to build networks inside of networks, using a special class of IP’s Uses another computer’s IP to communicate with external networks (including the internet)

Classes Classes depend on the first octet of the IP address, except for a few special cases The 5 classes and their default SNM: A, B, C, D, E –Class A /8 »1.0.0.0 through 126.0.0.0 –Class B /16 »128.0.0.0 through 191.255.0.0 –Class C /24 »192.0.0.0 through 223.255.255.0 –Class D »224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.0 –Class E »240.0.0.0 through 255.255.255.0

Communicating Transmission Control Protocol Connection based protocol 3 way handshake Great for file transfers and grabbing web pages User Datagram Protocol Connectionless based protocol Great for real time data transfer »Shoutcast (jungletrain.net) »Video conferencing

The internet is … TCP/IPv4 + DNS = INTARWEBBING Security through IPSec (AH/ESP) Firewalls (similar to ACL) Network Design (SPF?) »IDS »IPS OBSCURITY »which we know isn’t very secure »If it weren’t for those kids and their stupid dog

In other words … The Internet = a big pain in the ass

Why? DARPA scope limitations DARPAnet »Initially funded by the infamous Al Gore »Intended to be a redundant data system that could function without a set path »Fancy hard drive backups No casual users Who would want to use these computer thingies anyways?

So what do we do from here? Development of IPng SIPP »Simple Internet Protocol Plus »RFC1710 TUBA »TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses »RFC1347, RFC1561 CATNIP »Common Architecture for Next-Generation IP »RFC1707

Why not IPv5? According to O’Reilly (5): Developed to optimize streaming Connection oriented Guaranteed QoS Little to no standardization support Too specialized IPv5 was never meant to replace IPv4, merely to supplement it

So what is IPv6? Basically IPv4 with: 128 bit addresses Address auto-configuration Mandatory multicast addresses Mandatory IPSec Simplified header structure Multiple addresses on the same interface And a few other nifty features…

IPv6 Highlighted Fixes address space issue Eliminates the NEED for NAT IPv6 can still be NAT’ed for pseudo-anonymity Required security Simplifies routing MAC based unique addressing

IPv6 Addresses 128 bits –2^128 –340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 Yes, that’s 12 commas –Roughly 800 addresses per gram of matter in the Earth (6) Hexidecimal notation –Hexidecimal 0-15 (or 0-9, a-f) –Example address: fe80::260:8ff:fecc:d80e/64 Note : instead of.

Problems (6)? Router storage limitations Allocation policies Rolling out IPv6 without a full understanding will end up a larger mess than IPv4 In which case, the internet would be nearly unsalvageable Politics vs. Technology

Router storage limitations? Older Cisco 2600 series routers –256 megs of storage space –2,147,483,648 bits of storage –67,108,864 IPv4 Addresses –16,777,216 IPv6 Addresses –Shouldn’t be TOO bad … However ……

Allocation policies Geographic allocation Much like current IPv4 Who gets what IPs? How do we keep track of 3.4×10 38 addresses? Big ups routing table MASSIF BOH P.s. I <3 jungle

Early ’90s Ford ABS They really sucked So did IPv4 when it was realized that we didn’t plan for the future NAT was a shoddy workaround… We can’t let that happen to IPv6 (7) 79,228 hundred billion billion times the addresses of IPv4 79,228 hundred billion billion times the clusterf*ck if we screw this up

Ideas? Anyone? Bueller? Mike O’Dell of UUNET proposes GSE: –Alternate Addressing Architecture for IPv6 (8) –Basically: Split up a 16 byte address into an 8 byte EID and 8 byte “Routing Goop(RG)” (locator) Resembles a NAT structure, but the RG is a manipulable by the routing system »Packets get modified in realtime »Allows for scalable multi-homing

Good idea but… Purists argue this is in violation of the end-to-end principle of networking And more importantly Implementing this would require a few incompatible changes to tcp/udp We don’t want to rewrite the internet, again Controversially insecure Currently not in use, no momentum

So what do we do? Familiarize yourself with IPv6 so that you can have an opinion, and participate in the community of developers and testers to further development of what could be a really useful protocol.

And dhen? So what do we do from here? Indeed … that is the question. For more depth on IPv6, check out the new class next semester! Registration opens in a couple weeks, be ready! TCP/IPv4 is the pre-requisite

A.D.D. IPv6 Can’t sit still long enough to learn the in’s and out’s of IPv6? Check out freenet6.com for a free IPv6 extension (part of your geographically assigned IPv6 address) TSPc Linux Kernel 2.4.x and up –USAGI –KAME