1 IPv6 5A7CE IP Next Generation (IPv6) what?what? why?why? when?when?
2 IPv6 5A7CE Why IPng? the limited availability of IPv4 addressesthe limited availability of IPv4 addresses –classless routing is the way to the 21st century routing is not hierarchicalrouting is not hierarchical –lots of routers, network structures are complicated awkward address management in large networksawkward address management in large networks –the fight for space between the subnet bits and host bits no obligatory data security featuresno obligatory data security features –party authentication and data encryption
3 IPv6 5A7CE The Run for the IPng Simple CLNP Simple CLNP IP Encaps CNAT Nimrod PIP SIP TP/IX IPAE TUBA CATNIP SIP SIPP 1992 1993 1994
4 IPv6 5A7CE IPv6 (SIPP-16) some of the header fields omittedsome of the header fields omitted new features with new headersnew features with new headers hierarchical addresseshierarchical addresses –so many that in the early stages only a minor portion of the address space is reserved –IPv4, multicast and anycast addresses –“plug and play” for workstations flow labels and priorityflow labels and priority –to support the QoS features
5 IPv6 5A7CE SIPP 16 Header version hdr length servicetotal length identificationflagsfragment offset time to liveprotocolheader checksum source address destination address additional parametersfiller 0151631 version class flow label payload lengthnext headermax hops source address (128 bits) 0151631 destination address (128 bits) IPv4: 20 bytes + options (rare) source routing IPv6: 40 bytes + options (common) hop-by-hop option source routing fragmentation tunnelling authentication/encryption next headeroption specific data n bytes
6 IPv6 5A7CE Important when Assigning Addresses the encoding of topological informationthe encoding of topological information geographical informationgeographical information mesh structures, multi-homingmesh structures, multi-homing methods of assigning host numbersmethods of assigning host numbers growing the hierarchygrowing the hierarchy multicast addressesmulticast addresses addresses for mobile hostsaddresses for mobile hosts other protocols (also IPv4)other protocols (also IPv4)
7 IPv6 5A7CE IPv6 Addresses FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210 x::ythe area between filled with zeroes ::a.b.c.dthe encoding of an IPv4 address ::0an undefined address ::1“myself”, loopback FE80::interface IDa network separated by routers (link- local) FEC0::subnet:interface IDinternal for an organization (site-local) FF...multihost address FF02::1equivalent to broadcast; all hosts FF02::2all routers (within a network)
8 IPv6 5A7CE (Possible) IPv6 Internet Addresses 001, Format Prefix (FP)001, Format Prefix (FP) –indicates the global hierarchical address TLA, Top Level AggregatorTLA, Top Level Aggregator –top level network link –max. 8 192 NLA, Next Level AggregatorNLA, Next Level Aggregator –a teleoperator or a major customer –consists of several n bit fields –max. 16 777 216 (8 bits reserved) SLA, Site Level AggregatorSLA, Site Level Aggregator –organization subnet information –several levels if necessary –max. 65 536 Interface IDInterface ID –IEEE EUI-64, 64 bits –usually a 48 bit MAC address in EUI-64 format –max. 18 446 744 073 709 551 616 01281128064 001 TLA RES NLA*SLA*Interface ID 104
12 IPv6 5A7CE Effects of IPv6 extremely slow developmentextremely slow development α and β available for NT & UNIXα and β available for NT & UNIX numerous high level protocols will require minor modificationsnumerous high level protocols will require minor modifications other development parallel to IPv6other development parallel to IPv6 –IPSEC, autoconfiguration, mobile IP, transition 6bone interconnects the IPv6 testing networks6bone interconnects the IPv6 testing networks6bone
13 IPv6 5A7CE The IPv4 - > IPv6 Translation IPv4 and/or IPv6/v4 nodes will not become isolatedIPv4 and/or IPv6/v4 nodes will not become isolated at first IPv6 traffic will be tunnelledat first IPv6 traffic will be tunnelled IPv4 IPv6 only in tunnelsIPv4 IPv6 only in tunnels –example: an IPv6/v4 compatible firewall host IPv4 IPv4 IPv6/v4 IPv6/v4 IPv6/v4 IPv6/v4 IPv6/v4 A B C D E F G
14 IPv6 5A7CE ICMP IPv6 development 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 SIPP-16SIPP-16 subcategories: IPv6 transition autoconfiguration address allocation security routing IPv6IPv6 IP TCP DNS FTP ??? ?