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Computers in Libraries Beyond Virtual Libraries Dr. Laverna Saunders Duquesne University March 17, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Computers in Libraries Beyond Virtual Libraries Dr. Laverna Saunders Duquesne University March 17, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computers in Libraries Beyond Virtual Libraries Dr. Laverna Saunders Duquesne University March 17, 2005

2 Computers in Libraries Managing Change Goal:  To present broad environmental trends driving technological change for academic libraries  To stimulate ideas for local action “Our world is about to change in a big, big way.”—Daniel Greenstein, California Digital Library (NY Times, 12-14-04)

3 Computers in Libraries Trend Trackers & Innovators OCLC Gartner Research Educause CNI Pew Research Center Walt Crawford CIL (of course!) MIT Media Lab MIT AI Lab OCLC R & D Ray Kurzweil Stanford University Carnegie Mellon Univ.

4 Computers in Libraries Negroponte’s Vision, 1992 “…the campus will be the first place where computing becomes like air…” Trends: Vanishing desktop Reversal of roles between wires and wireless transmission Role of delegation vs. direct manipulation at the interface

5 Computers in Libraries 2000201020202030197019801990 Embedded Connectivity (smart, dynamic) Logical Connectivity (wireless/service oriented, semantic, event-based) Physical Connectivity (networked, group productivity information overload) Personal Computing (individual productivity tools) Mainframe Computing (organizational, department productivity) Computing Era Connectivity Era Source: Gartner Research, 2003

6 Computers in Libraries Mainframe Computing Organizational, departmental productivity 1967 OCLC founded 1970 MARC adopted 1974 UPC barcodes Library Vendors:  CLSI, UTLAS  BATAB  RLG, WLN

7 Computers in Libraries From Dumb Terminals to PCs OCLC Model 105  Daisy-chained OCLC Model 300 Micro-Enhancer  21-year lifespan Client-Server

8 Computers in Libraries Personal Computing Individual Productivity Tools 1977 Apple II & Radio Shack TRS-80 1983 IBM PC rules 1983 Apple Macintosh 1984 CD-ROMs in PCs 1985 Aldus PageMaker 1986 32-bit chip 1988 GUI 1993 Apple Newton 1996 Palm Pilot

9 Computers in Libraries Physical Connectivity Networked, Group Productivity 1979 BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) 1985 NSF uses T1 1987 CREN (Corporation for Research & Educational Computing) 1989 WWW created 1991 NREN (National Research & Education Network) 1993 Pres. Clinton promotes Information Superhighway 1993 Mosaic developed

10 Computers in Libraries Evolving Internet 1996 Internet2  207 U.S. universities, working with industry and government to develop advanced network applications  “accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet”

11 Computers in Libraries Where are we now? Marc Andreessen: I try to look at it in a long- term perspective. Any new technology tends to go through a 25-year adoption cycle. With the Internet, we're really 10 years into what will ultimately look like a 25-year cycle from invention to full implementation. (Wired News, Feb. 14, 2003),1367,57661,00.html

12 Computers in Libraries Logical Connectivity Wireless/service-oriented “Five years from now there will be 83 million homes with broadband connections -- nearly as many as the 88 million that now have cable and satellite hookups, according to Bernstein projections. The number of wireless subscriptions in the U.S. will grow 20%, to 243 million, in the same period.” (Source: Business Week Online, March 7, 2005)

13 Computers in Libraries Embedded Connectivity Smart, dynamic RFID  Human implants  Future student ID? Smarter library buildings & classrooms More--TBD

14 Computers in Libraries Demographics & Expectations Builders, born 1901-1945 Early Boomers, born 1946-1955 Late Boomers, born 1956-1964 Gen X, born1965-1976 Net Generation (a.k.a. N-Gen, Generation Y, Millennials), born 1977-2003

15 Computers in Libraries N-Gen: Born Digital … Live Digital IM E-mail Cell phones MP3s iPods High-speed, high bandwidth Multitasking 5989%26bhcp=1

16 Computers in Libraries Interactive & Collaborative Learning 73% current students more likely to use Internet than go to library Learning is more like Nintendo (trial & error) than logic File-sharing, keyboarding, cut & paste

17 Computers in Libraries New Customer Services Students Expect  24 x 7  Prompt responses  Everything digital  Fast connectivity  Mobility  Paperless  Spaces for groups Universities & Libraries  Portals  IM  Virtual Reference  Electronic Resources  CMS + resource links  E-portfolios  Group study areas

18 Computers in Libraries Ubiquitous (like air) OCLC collaboration and Google Scholar Digitizing > 15 million books of research libraries @ cost of $10 (Harvard, Michigan, Stanford, NYPL, Oxford) Google as the #1 largest library by 2025  “Stand on the shoulders of giants”

19 Computers in Libraries Publishing Trends More E-books (selective) and E-Journals Aggregators vs. Publishers control Corporate control Fate of University Presses? SPARC & Create Change Open Access  Public Library of Science  BioMed Central

20 Computers in Libraries Digital Libraries & Repositories Library of Congress Internet Archive California Digital Library eScholarship Repository DSpace Vendor products

21 Computers in Libraries Budget Impact Budget reallocation from print to electronic and technology support Pressures toward cooperative collection development for print Shared remote storage facilities house older, little- used print collections Preservation for > formats Joint repositories Jurisdictional concerns

22 Computers in Libraries Copyright & Licensing Concerns Amazon/Google: teaser selections of copyrighted books; costs, pricing not known Contract law vs. copyright law & fair use Individual libraries lack clout of consortia Who owns the intellectual property rights?

23 Computers in Libraries Libraries and Learning Extension of the classroom or lab Librarians teaching Active learning zones Support e-learning & CMS Outcomes assessment Accreditation standards

24 Computers in Libraries Learning Objects Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning Examples: animation, simulation, interactive map, game, applet Usually developed by faculty

25 Computers in Libraries Rich Media May improve learning outcomes Improves student satisfaction and retention, increases time-on-task Opportunity to create a diverse, global network of learning object developers and repositories of high-quality, pedagogically sound materials DOD standard: SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) New opportunity for library involvement

26 Computers in Libraries Redefining Roles New Opportunities:  Virtual Reference  Knowledge Managers  Partnerships with faculty and campus IT  Instructional design  Teaching  Technical skills  Reinventing core functions

27 Computers in Libraries Beyond Virtual Libraries and … Toward convergence and integration of multiple technologies for learning and communication Toward the library as a repository of content in many formats, searchable and linked to learning systems Toward digital assets accessed by users Toward more change and lifelong learning

28 Computers in Libraries Toward Ubiquity

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