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Performance modelling and tapering Iñigo Mujika Department of Research and Development ATHLETIC CLUB BILBAO.

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Presentation on theme: "Performance modelling and tapering Iñigo Mujika Department of Research and Development ATHLETIC CLUB BILBAO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Performance modelling and tapering Iñigo Mujika Department of Research and Development ATHLETIC CLUB BILBAO

2 Mathematical modelling and systems theory Athlete = System Fitness Fatigue Σ Training - + Performance Banister & Fitz-Clarke J. Therm. Biol. 18: 587-597, 1993

3 Modelling the effects of training Mujika et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28: 251-258, 1996 Time Training Performance Initial Negative Influence Positive influence tntn tgtg

4 Characterisation of a dynamical process Busso & Thomas Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perf. 1: 400-405, 2006 ? t t InputOuputSystem..... Goodness-of-fit

5 Weeks of Training 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 0 1 2 3 4 PI NI 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 454035302520151050 85 90 95 100 105 Modeled Performance Actual Performance 454035302520151050 454035302520151050 Performance (% PB) Positive Influence (PI)Negative Influence (NI) Training Load (A.U. wk -1 ). Mujika et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28: 251-258, 1996 Modelling application in swimming

6 Mathematical modelling and taper duration Mujika et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28: 251-258, 1996 Time Training Performance t g = 32 ± 12 days t n = 12 ± 6 days tntn tgtg

7 Mujika et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28: 251-258, 1996 T3 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Positive Influence (PI) Early SeasonPre-TaperPost-Taper T1T2 ES 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 ** * Negative Influence (NI) T1T2T3 ES Modelling the effects of the taper

8 Varying adaptation profiles Time Training 10 Performance 24 Swimmer HR 1438 Swimmer CJ

9 Limitations and model evolution “The theoretical analysis based on the original model of Banister et al. (1975) is possibly flawed because of the underlying linear formulation. The response to a given training dose was independent of the accumulated fatigue with past training. This implies that the taper duration should be identical whatever the severity of the training preceding the taper ” “This led us to propose a formulation of a new non-linear model. This non- linear model implied that the magnitude and duration of the fatigue produced by a given training dose increased with the repetition of exercise bouts, and was reversed when training was reduced (Busso, 2003)” Thomas et al. J. Sports Sci. 26: 643-652, 2008

10 Prediction of system’s behaviour from previous observation Busso & Thomas Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perf. 1: 400-405, 2006 Model & Parameters ? t t InputOuput Model & Parameters ? t t InputOuput

11 Characteristics of the optimal simulated taper % Reduction Form of training reduction StepExponential 65.3 67.4 54.7*$ 51.6*$ Without OT With OT Linear 46.3* 43.1* Duration (days) 16.4 22.4 22.3* 39.1* Without OT With OT 25.4* 42.5* Performance (% Personal record) 101.1 101.4 101.1 101.5* Without OT With OT 101.1 101.5* *: different from Step; $: different from Linear Thomas et al. J. Sports Sci. 26: 643-652, 2008

12 Effects of previous training on optimal taper characteristics Without OTWith OT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 * Optimal Training Load (Training Units) Without OTWith OT 0 20 40 60 80 100 Optimal Reduction (% Pre-Taper Training) Without OTWith OT 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 * Optimal Duration (Days) Without OTWith OT 0 1 2 3 4 5 ** Performance Improvement (% Pre-Taper Performance) Thomas et al. J. Sports Sci. 26: 643-652, 2008

13 Effects of optimal taper on NI, PI and performance PrePost 0 1 2 3 4 5 * Negative Influence PrePost 97 98 99 100 101 102 Positive Influence PrePost 97 98 99 100 101 102 * Performance (% Personal Record) WITHOUT OT PrePost 0 1 2 3 4 5 * Negative Influence PrePost 97 98 99 100 101 102 Positive Influence PrePost 97 98 99 100 101 102 Performance (% Personal Record) WITH OT $ * $ * $ $ Thomas et al. J. Sports Sci. 26: 643-652, 2008

14 Changes in training load during optimal two-phase taper 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Weeks of Taper Training Load (%NT) 0 123456 Thomas et al. J. Strength Cond. Res. Submitted * $* $ NT OT

15 Performance changes during optimal two-phase taper 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Weeks of Taper Performance (%NT) 0 1234 103 104 NT OT 2726282930 103,40 103,45 103,50 103,55 Days of Taper Performance Optimal linear taper Optimal two-phase taper Thomas et al. J. Strength Cond. Res. Submitted

16 Conclusions

17 The available data on performance modelling confirm the relevance of the modelling approach in the study of individual responses to training and the optimisation of tapering strategies Computer simulations based on mathematical modelling offer new prospects for further investigation into innovative tapering strategies and performance optimisation

18 ESKERRIK ASKO! (“Thank you very much!” in Basque Language)


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