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Bubble Motions in Bubble Rafts under Steady Shear Michael Dennin Department of Physics U. C. Irvine Supported by: Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-03ED46071, Sloan Foundation, Petroleum Research Fund, and UCI UROP

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General Outline Questions raised/addressed in this talk Overview of the system Initial results

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Two Questions What is the average flow behavior of slowly sheared bubble raft? (How does this relate to flow of foams?) What is the connection between average flow behavior and individual bubble motions?

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General properties Fluctuations in stress/energy. “Particle” rearrangements (T1 events, non- affine motions) Non-uniform shear Diffusive motion of “particles”.

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Two “types” of non-uniform shear Non-uniform shear: region of non-zero and zero shear rate coexist 1)strain rate is continuous (usually exponential velocity). 2)strain rate is discontinuous.

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“Two-dimensional” foam Debregeas, Tabuteau, Di Meglio, PRL 87 (2001)

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Three dimensional suspension Coussot, Raynaud, et al., PRL 88, 218301 (2002)

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Definition of T1 Event T1 event: Neighbor switching

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Apparatus

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Schematic of Apparatus Inner radius r i : 3.84 cm Outer radius r o : 7.43 cm Area fraction: 0.95 Boundary conditions: no slip at both walls, but inner cylinder is free to move.

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Definition of Terms Outer barrier moves with V Strain: x/ r Strain Rate: d /dt = v/ r Viscosity: = stress/(strain rate) rr strain elastic flowing stress Shear stress: xy = F/ L (two- dimensions)

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Bubble Motions

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Reminder of Geometry Consequences Couette Geometry: average stress, , proportional to 1/r 2 Yield stress, y : => critical radius beyond which “rigid” body or elastic behavior, strain rate is a continuous function of r.

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Effective Viscosity: stress/(strain rate)

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Stress versus strain (1) strain rate = 3 x 10 -2 s -1 (2) strain rate = 4 x 10 -3 s -1 y = 0.8 mN/m r c =6.3 cm r c =6.7 cm

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Average Velocity Profile V(r)/ r = 1 => rigid body rotation. Fit is to vel. profile for a power law viscosity.

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Some Questions What sets the “critical” radius? Why is strain rate discontinuous? Consider “flow” during individual events and T1 events. What is the role of stress chains, if they exist?

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T1 events and stress

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T1 events and bubble motions

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“Local” Displacements E B,C A,D

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T1 events and average velocity

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Summary Apparent disagreement between average stress measurements and average velocity profile: strain-rate discontinuity needs to be understood. Connection between T1 events and short time bubble motions. Not clear the connection between T1 events and average velocity. Time averages rapidly converge despite very nonlinear short time motion.

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Acknowledgments Video images of bubble raft: John Lauridsen Viscosity measurements: Ethan Pratt Initial Bubble tracking software: Gregory Chanan Funding: Department of Energy grant DE- FG02-03ED46071, Sloan Foundation, Petroleum Research Fund, and UCI UROP

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