Presentation on theme: "P.M. Govindakrishnan Project Coordinator All India Coordinated Research Project (Potato) Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla Agro ecological classification."— Presentation transcript:
P.M. Govindakrishnan Project Coordinator All India Coordinated Research Project (Potato) Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla Agro ecological classification and adaptation of potato and characterization of target environments considering climate change
Multi Environment Trials (MET) is one of the important activities of any breeding programme. The objective is to develop varieties with wide adaptation Thus the concept of Mega Environments (ME) was developed. Mega environment is defined as a broad not necessarily contiguous area occurring in more than one country and frequently transcontinental, defined by similar biotic and abiotic stresses, cropping system requirements and consumer preferences.
Statistical and classificatory approaches are used to charaterise the environments and study GEI. Widely adapted genotypes are not only input responsive but also input efficient. The ME concept has proven very successful in characterising major wheat, maize growing areas.
Relevance of ME to potato The number of trial sites are too large. In the case of potato, it is difficult to carry out a large number of trials since seed availability is a constraint. Potato is much more responsive to environment than maize and wheat, hence the requirement of trial sites would be too large.
Limitations of ME concept are that locations may vary temporally from year to year and spatially within farmers’ fields and locally. ME tend to shift from year to year due to fluctuation in weather pattern. Resources are becoming a major constraint for extensive Multienvironment testing (MET) of hybrids However, wide adaptation is important and would become all the more important under climate change scenario where temperature extremes and shift in rainfall pattern are expected.
Three regions have been delineated in the IGP based on the growing period availability. The western region where two short duration crops are feasible. The central region where one long duration crop could be grown The eastern region where a single short duration crop could be grown In the case of potato in India homogenous regions based on heuristics were developed and breeders speculated on how well their varieties might perform in the regions.
Each AEZ is identified by a ‘id’ e.g. “A13Eh1” which represents A = Physiographical region (Western Himalayas); 13 = Soil scape (shallow skeletal soil) Eh = Hyper (Arid) bioclimatic zone; 1= Length of Growing Period (<60 days) Based on the AEZ of the trial site some indication of the adaptation domain of the hybrids can be inferred. During the 80s the AEZ concept was developed. Homogenous regions (20) and sub regions (about 80) were developed.
S No Agro IdRegionEco Sub Region (ESR) SoilAWCPotato Growing Districts 29.1N8Dm_Cd4Punjab and Rohilkhand plains Hot dry/moist subhumid transitional deep, loamy to clayey alluvium- derived(inclusio n of saline and sodic) mediumAmritsar, gurdaspur, Kapurthala, Hosiarpur, Jalandhar, NawanShahr, Una, Roopnagar, Ludhina, Fatehgarh Sahib, Panchkula, Chandigarh, Patial, Solan, Sirmaur, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Saharanpur, Muzaffernagar, Bijnor, Jyotiba phule Nagar, Moradabad, Rampur, Meerut The AEZ method is not applicable in the case of potato since Growing Period is determined on the basis of rainfall probability There is a lot of variability with respect to growing season even within the AEZ
Hence the need for agroecological zonation which would identify niche environments with unique biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil and climate information of the trial sites can be used to classify the point locations into more or less homogenous environments. Protocol to link individual trial sites to larger regions for which they are representative for better targeting of genotypes.
Spatial analysis can be used to support geographic targeting of genotypes to environments. Maps and models can predict how well cultivars will respond to particular environments. This has been facilitated in recent years by the availability of large number of spatial analysis tools. Software: A number of GIS S/W are available. Soil data: A number of sources of spatial soil data are available e.g. FAO 1:5 million soil map of the world, WISE database, District wise 1:10,000 soil map of India developed by NBSSLUP etc
Climate: Marksim weather generator, Worldclim, NewLoclim etc DEM: 1:90m SRTM data Satellite data for vegetation mapping : 250m MODIS, SPOT data and its products viz NDVI, LAI etc
Options available: I Climate matching Environmental data on the sites of variety trials can give information for targeting genotypes to other environments. Many tools are available for climate similarity analysis BIOCLIM is one method which uses temperature and rainfall data to determine the climate similarity of different locations. CLIMEX is another climate matching software which gives an index of similarity of different locations. The climate matching tools classifies locations with similar climates but do not consider information specific to a crop.
DOP1* DOP2* DOP3* Days(T1)Yield(T1)Days(T1)Yield(T1)Days(T1)Yield(T1) NE82490.986505.787530.5 IGP84487.890515.997546.6 In India we used the climate similarity analysis methods to identify regions in the north east similar to the Indo Gangetic plains
II Physiological approach to adaptation - perhaps more relevant in the case of potato i) Delineate the growing period for potato based on thermal regime ii) Characterise the region on the basis of potential productivity, biotic and abiotic stresses iii) Conduct MET and relate crop performance to phenology using models iv) Delineate target domains for the hybrids based on biophysical attributes of the target environments and phenology of the test hybrids
Temperature constraints for the identification of the potential growing seasons : - a daily minimum temperature above 5 °C; - a daily maximum temperature below 30 °C; - a minimum accumulated temperature requirement of 1500 °Cday (base temperature 2 °C); - a maximum accumulated temperature requirement of 3000 °Cday (base temperature 2 °C). i) Delineate the growing period for potato based on thermal regime Thermally suitable growing period for potato in India The heat unit accrued at 60, 75 and 90 days are different at different locations hence the development stage of the crop is different at different locations
Meteorological factors, cultivar characteristics Stresses due to nutrients, water and pests and diseases; management When we compare the actual yield with the potential yield, the performance of the test hybrids vis a vis the potential yield may indicate the adaptability of the hybrids ii) Characterise the region on the basis of potential productivity, biotic and abiotic stresses
iii) Conduct MET and relate crop performance to phenology using models - Integration of physiology in breeding programme under AICRP Using the temperature, canopy development profile and biomass data simple models can be used to dissect the yield obtained into its components
Planting Emergence Growth Duration (thermal time) Dry Weight Tuber initiation Haulm growth phase Tuber growthphase Pre emergence phase Dissecting the yield into the components would help in better targeting of genotypes iii) Conduct MET and relate crop performance to phenology using models - Integration of physiology in breeding programme under AICRP
Maps showing a plateau areas (long day, high night temperature, low radiation, mite and early blight b) the areas prone to night temperaure stress c) the change in stress degree hours (quantification of temperature stress in terms of deviation from optimum) due to climate change a b c Target environments can be characterised on the basis of environmental, edaphic and other stress factors affecting the growth and development of the crop. iv) Delineate target domains for the hybrids based on biophysical attributes of the target environments and phenology of the test hybrids
Maps showing the analogue stations of Jalandhar, Agra, Gwalior and Patna Maps showing the analogue stations of Kannauj and Burdwan III Adaptation of genotypes to climate change: Climate analogues is another method of studying genotype adaptation under climate change situation
Climate Change Scenarios for South Asia CO2 levels: 393 ppm by 2020; 543 ppm by 2050 and 789 ppm by 2080 Source: IPCC, 2007
P.M. Govindakrishnan Project Coordinator All India Coordinated Research Project (Potato) Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla ICAR Regional committee meeting I – ATR CPRI Shimla and AICRP Potato
CPRI Shimla 1. Concerted efforts are required by all the R&D Institutions in the region to develop complete economical packages of practices for organic farming of cereals, vegetables, horticulture crops, and medicinal and aromatic plants ( MAPs). Action taken : Projects under the National Project on Organic Farming funded by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture ( Gvot. of India) and CPRI developed to - develop package of practices of organic farming for potato production involving different organic nutrients sources viz. use of farmyard manure, compost, bio- fertilizers, green manuring, crop residues incorporation etc. -biopest control with the use of botanicals/organic sources for insect/pests and disease management -Training programmes have also been organized to the extension officials/ farmers on organic farming systems.
2. Package of practices needs to be developed to check the recurrence of high incidence of dieseases in crops cultivated under protected cultivation. Poly houses need standardization. Action taken : As potatoes are not grown under polyhouse conditions, the point does not AICRP (Potato) No recommendation.