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ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV Effectiveness Measurement in ESA Space Projects Pedro A. Barrios, Maria Hernek, Marek Prochazka European Space.

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Presentation on theme: "ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV Effectiveness Measurement in ESA Space Projects Pedro A. Barrios, Maria Hernek, Marek Prochazka European Space."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV Effectiveness Measurement in ESA Space Projects Pedro A. Barrios, Maria Hernek, Marek Prochazka European Space Agency NASA IV&V Workshop September 2012

2 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 2 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Objective / Outline Objective Present the results of an ESA study to assess the effectiveness of the ISVV process carried out in the scope of ESA missions Assessment of past ISVV projects, with the following final objectives: –Identify what is useful in ISVV process (i.e. what brings results) –Identify what needs to be improved (i.e. added/removed/clarified/...) –Make unified metrics collection an integrated part of the process Outline ESA ISVV process: a quick overview ISVV metrics definition ISVV metrics collection & analysis Conclusions and future work

3 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 3 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Independent Software Verification & Validation (ISVV) by ESA 1.ISVV is required for Mission and Safety Critical software, (ECSS-E-40/ECSS-Q-80) 2.ISVV tasks are additional and complementary to the nominal SW supplier’s verification and validations tasks 3.ISVV tasks cover verification and validation of software requirements, design, code and tests (typically starting at SW-SRR and finishing before the SW-QR) 4.ISVV supplier is required to be an organization independent of the software supplier as well as the prime/system integrator (full technical, managerial, and financial independence) 5.Most ESA projects implement the ISVV process as an industrial contract placed by the Prime contractor

4 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 4 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview MAN. Management IVA. Independent Validation IVE. Independent Verification IVE.TA.Technical Specification Analysis IVE.DA.Design Analysis IVE.CA.Code Analysis MAN.VV.ISVV level definition IVA.Validation MAN.PM.ISVV Process Management 6 activities/STAGES: Management (MAN), Verification (IVE) and Validation (IVA) Activities are composed of TASKS, and these are further split into SUBTASKS 1.Management (MAN.PM and MAN.VV) is concerned with issues such as ISVV objectives and scope, planning, roles, responsibilities, budget, communication, competence, confidentiality, schedule and ISVV level definition (to limit the scope of ISVV) 2.Technical Specification Analysis (IVE.TA) is verification of the software requirements 3.Design Analysis (IVE.DA) is verification of the SW Architectural Design and the Software Detailed Design 4.Code Analysis (IVE.CA) is verification of the SW source code 5.Validation (IVA) is testing of the SW to demonstrate that the implementation meets the technical specification

5 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 5 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview Example of a Task/Subtask description Activity: Technical Specification Analysis Task: SW Requirements Verification Subtasks: T1.S1, T1.S2 … T1.S11 Start/End Events Inputs/Outputs Methods are identified for each subtask Some numbers: IVE.TA  1 task  11 subtasks IVE.DA  3 tasks  15/12/5 subtasks IVE.CA  3 tasks  10/5/3 subtasks IVA  3 tasks  3/3/3 subtasks

6 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 6 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview IVE: Technical Specification Analysis SW Requirements Specification (PDR) Interfaces Control Document (PDR) System Requirements allocated to System Requirements allocated to Software (SRR) SW- Requirements SW-HW Interface Requirements (SRR) Subtasks: To verify Software Requirements external consistency with the system requirements Interface Requirements external consistency with the system requirements software requirements correctness consistent documentation of the software requirements software requirements completeness dependability and safety requirements readability of the software requirements timing and sizing budgets of the software requirements Identify test areas and test cases for Independent Validation that software requirements are testable software requirements conformance with applicable standards TA.T1: Software Requirements Verification

7 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 7 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview IVE: Design Analysis Technical Specification (PDR) SW Architectural Design (PDR) Interfaces Control Doc (PDR) Subtasks: To verify SW architectural design external consistency with Technical Specification SW architectural design external consistency with Interface Control Documents interfaces consistency between different SW components architectural design correctness architectural design completeness dependability & safety of the design readability of the architectural design timing and sizing budgets of the software Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation architectural design conformance with applicable standards if models are produced by the SW suppliers: Verify test performed on high level model Verify development and verification and testing methods and environment then construct model test cases & model test procedures then execution of model test procedures DA.T1: Architectural Design Verification

8 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 8 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview IVE: Design Analysis Subtasks: To verify detailed design external consistency with Technical Specification detailed design external consistency with Interface Control Documents detailed design external consistency with Architectural Design interfaces consistency between different SW components detailed design correctness detailed design completeness dependability & safety of design readability of detailed design timing and sizing budgets of software accuracy of the model (in case models are produced by the SW suppliers) Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation Verify detailed design conformance with applicable standards Subtasks: To verify timing and sizing budgets of software that dependability & safety aspects on product are specified in the SUM readability of User Manual completeness of User Manual correctness of User Manual DA.T2: Detailed Design Verification DA.T3: Software User Manual Verification

9 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 9 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview IVE: Code Analysis CA.T1: Source Code Verification Subtasks: To verify source code external consistency with Technical Specification source code external consistency with Interface Control Documents source code external consistency with Architectural Design and Detailed Design interfaces consistency between different SW units source code correctness with respect to technical specification, architectural design and detailed design source code readability, maintainability and conformance with the applicable standards dependability & safety of source code Source code accuracy Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation timing and sizing budgets of the software

10 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 10 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ESA ISVV Process overview IVE: Code Analysis CA.T2: Integration Test Specification and Test Data Verification Subtasks: To verify consistency with Technical Specification consistency with Software Architectural Design integration test procedures correctness and completeness If models are produced by the SW suppliers, then evaluate model verification and validation test results integration test reports CA.T3: Unit Test Procedure and Test Data Verification Subtasks: To verify consistency with Software Detailed Design unit test procedures correctness and completeness unit test reports

11 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 11 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV effectiveness metrics Key goal of activity is to estimate effectiveness of the ISVV process carried out in scope of ESA projects Major objective is to provide measurements and conclusions to support identification and prioritization of ISVV activities based on their ‘efficiency’ Improve ISVV process is an additional objective ISVV effectiveness to be calculated based on number of findings and their acceptance and impact Based on number of findings, the following metrics are computed: findings per ISVV stage / task / subtask; finding per severity; findings per type and effective findings.

12 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 12 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Measurement Process 3 steps activity: ISVV metrication definition / ISVV metrics collection / ISVV metrics assessment Industrial context: Measurement needs and processes started by ESA Provision of metrics performed through different small contracts granted by ESA to different ESA ISVV suppliers Data analysis, collection and metrics analysis and calculation performed by an ESA contractor to this activity

13 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 13 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Measurement Process Data gathering, with following contents: SW product metrics (size in kLOC, number of requirements, criticality) ISVV project metrics (ISVV level, ISVV scope and stages, documentation quality at reviews) Findings (task, subtask, which document, type, severity, use of tools, acceptance, impact measured in number of changes) Note: excel tool was used

14 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 14 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Measurement Process 15 products from 5 projects 4 different ISVV suppliers The IVE effectiveness metrics are assessed: o per product o per SW products of similar size o In total, i.e. in all projects and SW products considered Analysis is performed: o Per all stages o Per ISVV project stage o Per ISVV task /subtask Findings per stage/task/sub-task, per severity, per type, Effective Findings & Tools usage ProjectProductSIZETYPE GAIAGAIA intermediateBigASW CryoSatCryoSat CDMUMediumASW CryoSat AOCSMediumASW LISA PFLISA PF BSWSmallBSW LISA PF ASWBigASW LISA PF DHSWMediumASW Galileo MSF BigASW Galileo MGF BigASW Galileo IPFGalileo IPF AFMediumASW Galileo IPF RTMCBigASW Galileo NSGU BigASW Galileo PxSU Galileo PxSU BSWMediumBSW Galileo PxSU ASWMediumASW ATVATV FASBigASW ATV MSUMediumASW Note: Only one product classified as small

15 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 15 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (1/10) Total Findings Total number of IVE findings for 15 products within this analysis is 2492 No clear relationship between findings & product size red=big products ; blue=medium; green=small Mean & Standard deviation

16 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 16 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (2/10) Findings per stage TA: Technical Specification Analysis CA: Code Analysis DA: Design Analysis Share of total findings per stage Findings per stage per Product Findings per size per stage Although there is some variability per product, number of findings are roughly 1/3 for three stages The majority of findings are at the TA stage for big type products, and CA stage for small

17 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 17 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (3/10) Findings per task (TA: Technical Specification Analysis) Share of total findings for TA tasks Findings per size for TA tasks Majority of findings of TA stage are at TA.T2 task (Software Requirements Verification) for all products, all projects, all product sizes with only one exception. As the size of products decreases, more findings are discovered at TA.T2 task Findings per product for TA tasks

18 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 18 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (4/10) Findings per task (DA: Design Analysis) Total share of findings for DA stage Majority of findings of the DA stage are either at DA.T2 (Architectural Design Verification) task or at DA.T4 task (Detailed Design Verification) depending of the different products. Findings per product for DA tasks Findings per size for DA tasks

19 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 19 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (5/10) Findings per task (CA: Code Analysis) Total share of findings for CA stage Share of findings per product for CA tasks Findings per size for CA tasks Majority of findings of CA stage are at the CA.T2 task (Source Code Verification) in totals, then it varies product by product. CA.T3 (IT tests Verification) also represents a big share

20 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 20 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (6/10) Findings per sub-task (e.g. TA subtasks) Exact numbers are available for all the subtasks There are subtasks producing a reduced number of findings. Three possible cases: subtask not performed within the ISVV project, subtask not producing findings or data not available for the subtask T2: Software Requirements Verification T1: Requirements Traceability Verification

21 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 21 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (7/10) Findings per severity Most of findings are minor. Major findings account for 36%. Proportions found across the three stages (TA, DA, CA) are similar to these numbers

22 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 22 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (8/10) Findings per type Most of findings are of type correctness, followed by findings of type completeness

23 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 23 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (9/10) Tools usage Majority of findings were discovered manually (97% of the total findings) and only very few of them using tools (either to automatically discover the finding or the so-called ‘semi-automated’, using tools to further evaluate to discover any finding)

24 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 24 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use ISVV metrics collection & analysis (10/10) Effective findings (ISVV findings that implied a change, improvement, correction to the software product) Accepted findings per product Majority of findings are effective no matter product & size, except for small product for which majority of findings are not effective Majority of findings per stage are effective (72% TA & DA stages; 61% at CA stage) Majority of findings are effective for all severities (70% for major, 69% for minor) Accepted findings per size

25 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 25 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Conclusions (1/2) Total number of findings -Measurements based on number of findings -Focus on IVE metrics -No correlation found between number of findings & product size Total number of findings per ISVV stage / task /subtask -Stage: Roughly even distribution (39% TA, 28% DA, 33% CA) -Task/Subtasks: Identified the tasks producing most of the findings for TA, DA, CA (e.g. ‘Correctness/Completeness’ subtasks are producing many findings; ‘consistency’ subtasks produce some) Type of findings: The majority of findings are of type correctness (36%) & completeness (28%) Effective findings: The majority of findings (69%) are effective (i.e. implying changes/corrections to the software product)

26 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 26 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Conclusions (2/2) Severity: Most findings are minor at all stages, with 58% minor, 36% major and remaining 6% for other severity (comment, very low) Tools: The majority of the findings were discovered manually (97%) and only very few of them using tools. Tools were used only for 3% of findings (especially at the CA stage) Example: if we started today an ISVV contract on a project, we could expect, on average: 166 findings, from which 115 would be effective findings; out of those, 41 would be major findings, and those would be spread on the different stages as: IVE: 16 TA, 11 DA, 14 CA

27 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 27 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Future work Collect metrics for the upcoming ISVV projects. Analyze tasks/sub-tasks not producing many findings (they might need better explanations within the ISVV guide, review the methods and tools proposed to be used when performing them, …) Analyze Independent Validation: o Define useful metrics for IVA and asses IVA effectiveness o Extend the scope of IVA, to cover Qualification & Acceptance of the SW and the Operational scenarios (i.e. having the operational view to create SW validation campaigns) Modeling: o Some model related sub-tasks have not been ‘profiled’ o Understand how models produced during SW development could be used during ISVV activities (e.g. Model-Based Testing techniques to produce validation campaigns) ISVV effectiveness Metrics: o Some other way how to measure effectiveness? o Cost figures?

28 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 28 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Thanks for your attention !!!! For more information, please contact: Pedro A. Barrios, European Space Agency

29 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 29 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Back-up Slides

30 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 30 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Findings per sub-task (1/3) IVE: Technical Specification Analysis TA.T1: Software Requirements Verification (===) IVE.TA.T1.S1: Verify Software Requirements external consistency with the system requirements (===) IVE.TA.T1.S2: Verify Interface Requirements external consistency with the system requirements (+++) IVE.TA.T1.S3: Verify software requirements correctness (===) IVE.TA.T1.S4: Verify the consistent documentation of the software requirements (+++) IVE.TA.T1.S5: Verify software requirements completeness (+++) IVE.TA.T1.S6: Verify the dependability and safety requirements (+++) IVE.TA.T1.S7: Verify the readability of the software requirements (---) IVE.TA.T1.S8: Verify the timing and sizing budgets of the software requirements (---) IVE.TA.T1.S9: Identify test areas and test cases for Independent Validation (---) IVE.TA.T1.S10: Verify that the software requirements are testable (---) IVE.TA.T1.S11: Verify software requirements conformance with applicable standards High level view of number of findings per sub-task Legend: (+++): Subtask producing a considerable number of findings (===): Subtask producing some findings (---): Subtask producing a reduced number of findings (xxx): Metrics not available for that subtask

31 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 31 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Findings per sub-task (2/3) IVE: Design Analysis DA.T1: Architectural Design Verification (===) IVE.DA.T1.S1: Verify the SW architectural design external consistency with the Technical Specification (---) IVE.DA.T1.S2: Verify the SW architectural design external consistency with the Interface Control Documents (===) IVE.DA.T1.S3: Verify interfaces consistency between different SW components (===) IVE.DA.T1.S4: Verify architectural design correctness (===) IVE.DA.T1.S5: Verify architectural design completeness (===) IVE.DA.T1.S6: Verify the dependability & safety of the design (+++) IVE.DA.T1.S7: Verify the readability of the architectural design (===) IVE.DA.T1.S8: Verify the timing and sizing budgets of the software (---) IVE.DA.T1.S9: Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation (---) IVE.DA.T1.S10: Verify architectural design conformance with applicable standards (xxx) IVE.DA.T1.S11: Verify the test performed on the high level model (xxx) IVE.DA.T1.S12: Verify the development and verification and testing methods and environment (xxx) IVE.DA.T1.S13: then construct model test cases (xxx) IVE.DA.T1.S14: then construct model test procedures (xxx) IVE.DA.T1.S15: then execution of model test procedures DA.T2: Detailed Design Verification (---) IVE.DA.T2.S1: Verify the detailed design external consistency with the Technical Specification (---) IVE.DA.T2.S2: Verify the detailed design external consistency with the Interface Control Documents (---) IVE.DA.T2.S3: Verify the detailed design external consistency with the Architectural Design (+++) IVE.DA.T2.S4: Verify interfaces consistency between different SW components (===) IVE.DA.T2.S5: Verify detailed design correctness (===) IVE.DA.T2.S6: Verify detailed design completeness (+++) IVE.DA.T2.S7: Verify the dependability & safety of the design (---) IVE.DA.T2.S8: Verify the readability of the detailed design (===) IVE.DA.T2.S9: Verify the timing and sizing budgets of the software (xxx) IVE.DA.T2.S10: Verify the accuracy of the model (in case models are produced by the SW suppliers) (---) IVE.DA.T2.S11: Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation (---) IVE.DA.T2.S12: Verify detailed design conformance with applicable standards

32 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 32 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use Findings per sub-task (3/3) DA.T3: Software User Manual Verification (---) IVE.DA.T3.S1: Verify the timing and sizing budgets of the software (---) IVE.DA.T3.S2: Verify the dependability & safety aspects on the product are specified in the SUM (---) IVE.DA.T3.S3; Verify the readability of the User Manual (---) IVE.DA.T3.S4; Verify the completeness of the User Manual (---) IVE.DA.T3.S5: Verify the correctness of the User Manual IVE: Code Analysis CA.T1: Source Code Verification (---) IVE.CA.T1.S1: Verify source code external consistency with Technical Specification (---) IVE.CA.T1.S2: Verify source code external consistency with Interface Control Documents (---) IVE.CA.T1.S3: Verify source code external consistency with Architectural Design and Detailed Design (---) IVE.CA.T1.S4: Verify interfaces consistency between different SW units (+++) IVE.CA.T1.S5: Verify source code correctness with respect to technical specification, architectural design & detailed design (+++) IVE.CA.T1.S6: Verify the source code readability, maintainability and conformance with the applicable standards (+++) IVE.CA.T1.S7: Verify the dependability & safety of the source code (---) IVE.CA.T1.S8: Verify the accuracy of the source code (---) IVE.CA.T1.S9: Identify test areas and test cases for independent Validation (===) IVE.CA.T1.S10: Verify the timing and sizing budgets of the software CA.T2: Integration Test Specification and Test Data Verification (===) IVE.CA.T2.S1: Verify consistency with Technical Specification (---) IVE.CA.T2.S2: Verify consistency with Software Architectural Design (+++) IVE.CA.T2.S3: Verify integration test procedures correctness and completeness (xxx) IVE.CA.T2.S4: If models are produced by the SW suppliers, then evaluate model verification and validation test results (xxx) IVE.CA.T2.S5: Verify integration test reports CA.T3: Unit Test Procedure and Test Data Verification (---) IVE.CA.T3.S1: Verify consistency with Software Detailed Design (===) IVE.CA.T3.S2: Verify unit test procedures correctness and completeness (xxx) IVE.CA.T3.S3: Verify unit test reports

33 ISVV Effectiveness Measurement | Pedro A. Barrios | European Space Agency | 27/07/2012 | TEC-SWS | Slide 33 ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use IVA: Independent Validation IVA.T1: Identification of Test Cases IVA.T1.S1: Evaluate Task Input Inspection IVA.T1.S2: Perform Analysis IVA.T1.S3: Writing Independent Validation Test Plan IVA.T2: Construction of Test Procedures IVA.T2.S1: Achieve knowledge about the SVF IVA.T2.S2: Implement Test Cases into Test Procedures IVA.T2.S3: Updating the Independent Validation Test Plan IVA.T3: Execution of Test Procedures IVA.T3.S1: Execute the Test Procedures IVA.T3.S2: Investigation of failed tests IVA.T3.S3: Produce Test Report


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