A single image says it ALL! Swollen edematous ON –T2 information Expanded ON sheath –Good old symmetry! Dirty intraconal fat –Use of fat sat (FS) info Lack of flow void in SOV –MR physics: moving spins should give signal void I – Case 1
Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) Add diffusion gradients ↑ signal intensity (SI) –Real: √ ADC map –Artifact: T2 shine through ADC map – dark True restricted diffusion I – Case 1
Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) Infarcted brain Pus Rare acute MS plaque Some high grade BT’s Some neoplasms Creuztfelt Jakob Misc infections I – Case 1
“Pus” is THE SHORTEST pathologic diagnosis (Purulent material is more appropriate) Stains for bacteria are NOT helpful for speciation When infectious disease is on the differential, specimen should be sent to Microbiology for cultures
Imaging Techniques Pulse Sequence “Families” Spin EchoGradient Echo I – Case 2
Fast Imaging Techniques Siemens MP-RAGEVIBE General Electric 3D Fast SPGRLAVA-XV Philips 3D TFETHRIVE I – Case 2
Fast Imaging Techniques Gradient Echo – “Fast” Imaging MP-RAGE Magnetization Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo 3 D, can do multiplanar reformats Isovoxel 1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm I – Case 2
Fast Imaging Techniques Gradient Echo – “Fast” Imaging Might look like a T1, but be careful Disadvantages Metal artifact is bad WM very bright – can obscure enhancing lesions Cranial nerves often “enhance” I – Case 2
Pilocytic Astrocytomas (grade I) involve the optic pathways more frequently than Infiltrative Astrocytomas (grades II-IV) Anaplastic Astrocytoma (grade III) differs from grade II by the presence of mitoses and from Glioblastoma (grade IV) by its lack of necrosis. Anaplastic Astrocytoma is generally fatal within 2-5 years.
Initial MRI: T1 A and C Do we see Stuff or a Thing? Diff Dx for Stuff: –Pseudotumor –Infection (but fat clean) –Sarcoid –Lymphoma –We’ll add to this list during the next sessions as weird rare lesions are presented I – Case 3
Motion and MRI = NOT GOOD! I – Case 3 T2 images take longer to acquire than T1 Adding fat saturation ↑↑ time of acquisition
Bone Algorithm Makes Crappy Soft Tissue! I – Case 3
If lymphoma is a possibility, send fresh tissue for flow cytometry. Marginal zone lymphoma is one type of low grade B-cell lymphoma. MALTOMA is most frequent. Distinguished from follicular, mantle cell and small cell lymphoma by morphology and markers. Antigen Status in MZL CD20 Positive CD79a Positive CD5 Negative CD10 Negative CD23 Negative CD43 Negative cyclin D1 Negative
Extramedullary Myloid Tumor and Chloroma are other terms Remember Flow Cytometry! Hematologic Malignancies can present in “liquid” or solid forms with identical cell types: Myeloid Sarcoma vs AML; SLL vs CLL Myeloperoxidase expression is defining; also positive for CD68 Bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes are most frequent sites
Fungal organisms (Zygomycoses, Aspergillus and Candida species) are readily identified in with silver stains Speciation based on stains is not generally advised. Send cultures
Session I: What have we learned? 1.In the right setting, DWI can change the dx! Most MRI = anatomic, but DWI = physiology 2.Not every image with black CSF is true T1 Each new sequence has different limitations 3.Stuff vs thing = helps come up with DDx 4.Gd only one tool in the toolbox 5.A good CECT is another great tool 6.“Feathery” interface is intra-conal
Session I: What have we learned? If infection is a diagnostic consideration, send tissue for cultures; special stains are not optimal for speciation If hematologic malignancy is a diagnostic consideration, send tissue for flow cytometry and cytogenetics Both infiltrative and pilocytic astrocytomas can involve the optic pathways; pilocytics are much more frequent
What can I say? Three separate lesions, should have been mets Sometimes, you need a good pathologist! II – Case 1
Pathologist’s view: Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-satisfying diagnosis, usually one of exclusion Mixture of chronic inflammatory cells and stromal response causing a mass (NOT “pseudo-”) Combines many entities with variable outcomes Unknown etiology; rule out lymphoma
High grade B-cell lymphoma localized to vascular lumens Presents in the brain and skin most often Multiple infarcts with variable distribution Lymphoma unable to traverse blood brain barrier? Dismal prognosis Primary CNS Lymphoma Intravascular Lymphoma
Stroke Demyelinating Disease Most frequent cause of lawsuit in neuropathology is the misdiagnosis of demyelinating disease as a malignant astrocytoma Macrophages are misinterpreted to be neoplastic astrocytes Finding macrophages in a CNS biopsy should alert to non-neoplastic diseases, like MS or stroke (always atypical presentations) CD68
T1 – Always look at anterior clinoid Mets or meningioma II – Case 5
Whole body PET not good for skull base II – Case 5
Many patients present to medical attention with a metastatic carcinoma to the CNS without knowledge of a primary neoplasm. Advances in imaging and immunohistochemical markers have made the search for a primary neoplasm much more successful. TTF1/Napsin
Session II: What have we learned? Sometimes lesions don’t follow the “rules” Why did pseudotumor look like a thing? DWI is a great tool Erdheim-Chester likes the hypothalamus When you see cotton, think MS Orbital experts should use T1 images routinely, and put anterior clinoid process on your checklist!
Session II: What have we learned? Inflammatory pseudotumors are real diseases, but poorly understood and likely represent multiple etiologies. Intravascular lymphoma has similar malignant B- cells to primary CNS lymphoma, but trapped in blood vessels. Histiocytic infiltrates require subclassification based on morphology and markers. Fulminant cases of demyelinating disease can look like neoplasms radiologically and pathologically.
Have a Good Lunch Be back at 1PM We start promptly at 1:10PM
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