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Chapter 9 Communication Circuits. Agenda Definition Types Media Ownership Error conditions, prevention, and correction.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Communication Circuits. Agenda Definition Types Media Ownership Error conditions, prevention, and correction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Communication Circuits

2 Agenda Definition Types Media Ownership Error conditions, prevention, and correction

3 Definitions Telecommunication circuit Link Data link Channel Data circuit –Forward channel (high speed for data) –Reverse channel (low speed for control) Node

4 Type of Circuits Point-to-point circuits Multipoint circuits or multidrop circuits Two-wire circuits and four-wire circuits Analog Digital circuits ISDN T-carrier systems

5 Point-to-Point Circuits Only two points or nodes Between two telephones or terminal to computer More expense Necessary & high volume of traffic

6 Multipoint circuits Multidrop circuit or a network Low volume of traffic Less expensive

7 Two-wire and Four-wire circuits Two-wire circuits –Half-duplex circuits –Frequency division multiplexing for full-duplex data flow –Standard dial-up telephone –Less expensive Four-wire circuits –Full-duplex circuits –Leased lines –More expensive

8 Analog Circuits Voice grade circuits –Low speed but up to 56,00bps –Noise –Error Low-speed circuits or subvoice-grade circuits –Subdivide voice grade circuit to 12 or 24 circuits –Speed ranges between 45 to 200 bps –Burglar alarm, fire alarm, telegraph, & Teletypewriter usage Use Amplifier for long distance

9 Digital Circuits Low error rate, noise, & high speed Data service unit/channel service unit (DSU/CSU) –Shape and time the pulses –Less complicated –Less expensive Need repeater for long distance

10 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - I Types of channels –B (bearer) channel: 64kbps data –D (delta) channel: 16kbps signal –Broadband ISDN (BISDN): a full-duplex circuit or two asymmetrical simplex channel for high speed Access methods –Basic rate interface: 2B+D –Primary rate interface: 23B+D –Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN)

11 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - II Benefits –Efficient –Integrated voice and data –Programmable to meet user’s need –Robust signaling channel for network management –International defined open system interface Problems in US –Difficulty in agreeing on precise standards –High cost –Not active marketed service

12 T-carrier Systems T1, T2, T3, T4 T2 and T4 for carriers T1 and T3 for carriers and customers T1 Line –Repeater for every mile –24 circuits of 64,000 bps –Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) or Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) –Multiplexing equipment needed –Flexible to reconfiguration, low cost for high quality and volume Fractional T1 (any multiple of 64kbps)

13 Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) High-speed switched digital service from carrier Two speeds –T1 speed (1.544 Mbps) –T3 speed (44.736 Mbps) Configuration –Lease line from organization to central office –Normal, shared communication facilities between central offices Benefit: less expensive

14 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) - I Deliver digitized signals over telephone lines Higher data communication speed for Internet usage xDSL for dedicated, point-to-point, public network access over twisted pair copper wire –More bandwidth downstream than upstream –More for individual customer than business organization

15 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) - II Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) –Standard voice band –Medium speed upstream band –High speed downstream band New offerings –G.Lite ADSL: lower bandwidths for less cost –SDSL (symmetric digital subscriber line): equal speed in both direction –VDSL (very-high-rate digital subscriber line): high speed over short twisted pair telephone lines up to 1,000 feet

16 Circuit Media Conducted or guided media –Twisted pair or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) –Shield twisted pair –Coaxial cable –Optical fiber Radiated or unguided media (wireless) –Microwave radio –Satellite –Infrared

17 Twisted Pair 22, 24, 26 gauge Twisted pair or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Electrical noise & other interference Electrical Industries Association (EIA): Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,5E (extended), 6, and 7 (data grade starting Cat 3) Punchdown block

18 Shielded Twisted Pair Pros: –Less interference –Faster speed Cons: –More expensive –Physically larger and difficult to connect to a terminating block

19 Coaxial Cable Pros: –Large bandwidth (400 - 600 MHz) –High capacity –Less interference –Good for noise environment Cons: –Tapped easy (security problem) –Bulky to install

20 Optical Fiber - I Types: –Single mode: more expensive & high capacity –Multimode: less expensive and less capacity –Inexpensive plastic –Expensive glass Standard –Synchronous optical network (SONET) in US

21 Optical Fiber - II Pros: –High bandwidth –No interference –No crosstalk –Small physical size and light weight for installation –Very secure Cons: –Repeater for long distance –Expansive

22 Microwave Radio - I Characteristics –Long distance –Straight line transmission –20-30 miles between transmission towers –Radio license by FCC Private microwave links connecting office in a city

23 Microwave Radio - II Pros: –Analog or digital signals –For voice, data and television signals –Long distance Cons: –Interference by heavy rain –Straight line transmission –Security Vendors –Motorola –Rockwell Communication Systems

24 Satellite - I Characteristics: –Geosynchronous orbit –Microwave radio transmission –Uplink and downlink Types –Geosynchronous satellites (22,300 m) –Medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites (6,000 m) –Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite (300 – 1,000 m) Usages –Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) system for TV broadcasting –Digital satellite service (DSS) for high speed Internet receive-only access –Global telephone systems

25 Satellite - II Pros: –Analog or digital signals –For voice, data and television signals –Long distance Cons: –Security and encryption –Propagation delay

26 Infrared Light waves Line of sight Wireless communication between nearby equipment

27 Circuit Ownership Private circuits Leased circuits Bypass Switched (dial-up) circuits Selection criteria –Cost, speed, availability, reliability, maintenance, users’ requirements –Others?

28 Circuit Identification Blue prints and document circuit and equipment Circuit number to each circuit for identification

29 Multiplexing and Concentrating Time division multiplexing (TDM) –Bit, character, or entire message Statistical time division multiplexing (STDM) using address field Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) Concentrator using buffering and intelligence –Circuit multiplexer –Concentration –Inverse concentration

30 Circuit Error Conditions Background noise (electrical phenomenon) Impulse Noise (spike) Attenuation Attenuation distortion Envelope delay distortion (different propagation delay) Phase jitter (by carrier signal) Echo Crosstalk Dropouts

31 Error Prevention Line conditioning for leased lines reduce –Attenuation (class C) –Envelope delay distortion (class C) –Noise (class D) –Distortion (class D) Methods –Shielding –Improving connection for cables and connectors –Electronic versus mechanical equipment Quality Trouble-free

32 Error Detection Echo checking every character Vertical redundancy checking (VRC) or parity checking Longitudinal redundancy checking (LRC) or block check character (BCC) Cyclic redundancy checking (CRC-16) of polynomial error checking

33 Parity Check Example ParityBCC 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 VRC

34 Error Correction Equipment and circuit requirement –Buffer –Reverse channel or channel turn around Retransmission - automatic repeat request (ARQ) Methods –Stop and wait ARQ - ACK and NAK: long data block, low error rate, & having a reverse channel –Continuous ARQ: long propagation time –Forward error correction (FEC): simplex transmission using Hamming code, Hagelbarger code, Bose-Chaudhuri code High cost (extra bits & codes)

35 Guidelines for Wiring 25% more capacity Internet usage Two Cat 5 at each desk Fiber optic cable for backbone Good wiring contractor Others?

36 Future High-speed digital service Bandwidth-on-demand

37 Points to Remember Definition Types Media Ownership Error conditions, prevention, and correction

38 Discussion Design the communications circuits needs for a bank and state you reasons to insure the security and accuracy

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